Effect of cell phone use on salivary total protein, enzymes and oxidative stress markers in young adults: a pilot study
Shivashankara AR, Joy J, Sunitha V, Rai MP, Rao S, Nambranathayil S, Baliga MS. Effect of cell phone use on salivary total protein, enzymes and oxidative stress markers in young adults: a pilot study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Feb;9(2):BC19-22. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/10872.5580. Epub 2015 Feb 1.
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess the levels of salivary enzymes, protein and oxidant-antioxidant system in young college-going cell phone users.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell users (students) were categorized in to two groups - less mobile users and high mobile users, based on the duration and frequency of cell use. Unstimulated whole saliva samples of the volunteers were analysed for amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehdye (MDA) and glutathione (GSH).
RESULTS: High mobile users had significantly higher levels of amylase (p = 0.001), LDH (p = 0.002) and MDA (p = 0.002) in saliva, when compared to less mobile users. The marginal decrease in salivary total proteins, GSH and flow rate were statistically not significant (p >0.05).
CONCLUSION: Significant changes in salivary enzymes and MDA suggest adverse effect of high use of cell phones on cell health.
The findings of present study suggest adverse effect of mobile phone use on cellular health as indicated by increased salivary activities of LDH, amylase, and increased oxidative stress evident by higher salivary MDA level in high mobile users compared to less mobile users. Salivary biochemical parameters have served as sensitive indicators of health in mobile users. However, this was a preliminary project and has the limitations of small sample size and only with saliva.
Additionally, we also could not ascertain the wave strength of the mobiles used and the effect of only hand held mobile phone use were considered. Future studies are planned to evaluate the effect of frequent mobile phone use on the auditory, biochemical, immunological and mutagenic parameters with a larger sample size. When this study was conducted only 2G and 3G mobile phones were prevalent and studies are also planned to investigate the effect of both 2G and 3G systems and the effect of wave strength on the individual users. Future studies are planned to carry out a large study with bigger sample size and with people of various age groups to arrive at a more confirmatory conclusion.
Open Access Paper: http://1.usa.gov/1FOa2Zg
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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