Friday, June 28, 2019

135 peer-reviewed scientific studies & reports showing significant effects of EMF exposures on male fertility (1972-2012).

  1. Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN, (1999). [Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme level in testes of animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation] Biofizika 44(5):931-932 [Article in Russian]
2. Agarwal A, Deepinder, F. Sharma RK, Ranga G. & J. Li. (2008). Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study, Fertil Steril. 89 (1):124-128.
3. Agarwal A, Desai NR, Ruffoli R, Carpi A. (2008). Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: A brief review. Biomed Pharmacother. 62(8):550-553.
4. Agarwal A, NR. Desai, K Makker, A Varghese, R Mouradi, E Sabanegh, and R Sharma (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4):1318-25.
5. Agarwal A, Singh A and Hamada A (2011):Cell phones and male infertility: review of recent innovations in technology and consequences. International Brazilian Journal of Andrology Vol. 37 (4): 432-454.
6. Aghdam Shahryar H, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami (2008). Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 230-233.
7. Ahangarpour A, Fathi-Moghaddam H, Birgani MJ, Shahbazian H, Badavi M. (2009). Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responses of the male rats to short and long time alternative magnetic fields (50 Hz) exposure. J Res Med Sci.14(4):231-8
8. Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. (2005). Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int. J. Androl 28: 171–179.
9. Akdag Z, Celik MS, Ketani A, Nergiz Y, Deniz M, Dasdag S (1999). Effect of chronic low-intensity microwave radiation on sperm count, sperm morphology, and testicular and epididymal tissues of rats. Electro Magnetobiol 18 (2): 133 – 145
10. Andrienko LG, Dumanskiĭ IuD, Rudichenko VF, Meleshko GI. (1977). [Effect of industrial-frequency electromagnetic fields on the spermatogenic function].Vrach Delo. 9:116-8. [Article in Russian]. No abstract available.
11. Asashima M, Shimada K, Pfeiffer CJ. (1991)Magnetic shielding induces early developmental abnormalities in the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.Bioelectromagnetics, 12(4): 215-224
12. Avendaño C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF. (2012). Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility. 97(1):39-45.e2
13. Avendaño, C; A. Mata; A.M. Juarez Villanueva; V.S. Martínez; C.A. Sanchez Sarmiento (2010). Laptop expositions affect motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a nonthermal effect: a preliminary report. Fertility and Sterility. 94 (4), Supplement, pg. S73-S73
14. Baste V, Riise T and BE Moen (2008). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring Eur J Epidemiol. 23(5):369–377
15. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ).
16. Bereznitskaya, A.N. and I.M. Kazbekov (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp. 221-229 (1974).
17. Bernabò N, Tettamanti E, Russo V, Martelli A, Turriani M, Mattoli M, Barboni B. (2010). Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model. Theriogenology. 73(9):1293-305.
18. Bernabo N., Tettamanti E., Pistilli M.G., Nardinocchi D., Berardinelli P., Mattioli M., Barboni B. (2007). Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency magnetic field on the morphology and function of boar spermatozoa capacitated in vitro. Theriogenology, 67 (4), pp. 801-815
19. Brugh VM and Lipshultz LI (2004). Male factor infertility: evaluation and management. Med. Clin. North Am. 88(2): 367–85.
20. Buiatti E, Barchielli A, Geddes M, Nastasi L, Kriebel D, Franchini M, Scarselli G. (1984). Risk factors in male infertility: a case-control study. Arch Environ Health. 39(4):266-70.
21. Cairnie AB, Harding RK (1981). Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz continuous-wave microwaves. Radiat Res 87(1):100-8.
22. Celik S, Aridogan IA, Izol V, Erdogan S, Polat S, Doran S (2011). An evaluation of the effects of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis. Urology: 79(2): 346-50.
23. Chen HY, Wang SM, Peng RY, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zhao L, Zuo HY, Dong J, Su ZT: (2011). [Long-term microwave radiation affects male reproduction in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 17(3):214-8 [Article in Chinese]
24. Chia SE, Tay SK. (2001). Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men. J Occup Environ Med 43: 946–51.
25. Dasdag S, Ketani MA, Akdag Z. Ersay AR. Sari, I. Demirtas OC, Celik MS. (1999). Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res. 27(3):219-23.
26. Davoudi M, Brossner C, Kuber W. (2002). Der Einfluß elektromagnetischer Wellen auf die Spermienmotilität [The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility]. Journal fur Urologie und Urogynakologie. 19:18-22
27. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. (2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One.4(7):e6446
28. De Vita R, Cavallo D, Raganella L, Eleuteri P, Grollino MG, Calugi A. (1995). Effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on mouse spermatogenesis monitored by flow cytometric analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(5):330-4.
29. Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. Reprod Biomed Online.15(3):266-70.
30. Deepinder F, Makkler K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. Reprod Biomed Online. 3:266-70.
31. Derias EM, Stefanis P, Drakeley A, Gazvani R, Lewis Jones DI. (2006). Growing concern over the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility. Arch Androl. 52(1):9–14.
32. Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7:114
33. Dimitrova M, Dobrev B, Kiriakov K, Kirkov V, Panova Z (1982). [Effect of wide-band modulated electromagnetic fields on the workers of high-frequency telephone exchanges]. Problemi na khigienata ;7:21-9
34. Emura R, Ashida N, Higashi T, Takeuchi T. (2001) Orientation of bull sperms in static magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 22(1): 60-65
35. Erogul, E. Oztas, I. Yildirim, T. Kir, E. Aydur, G. Komesli, H.C. Irkilata, M.K. Irmak, A.F. Peker (2006). Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch. Med.Res. 37 (2006) 840–843.
36. Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys., 30 (1):(84-9).
37. Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR. (2011). The effect of pulsed 900MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa, Int J Androl. 34(1):206.
38. Falzone N, Huyser C, Fourie FlR, Toivo T, Leszczynski D & Franken DR. (2008) In vitro effect of 900 MHz GSM radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential and motility of human spermatozoa. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 268–276.
39. Farkhad, S.A., S. Zare, H. Hayatgeibi and A. Qadiri (2007). Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on testes in Guinea pig. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 4519-4522.
40. Fejes, Z. Závaczki, J. Szöllősi, S. Koloszár, J. Daru, L. Kovács, A. Pál. (2005). Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Arch. Androl. 51: 385–393.
41. Forgács Z, Kubinyi G, Sinay G, Bakos J, Hudák A, Surján A, Révész C, Thuróczy G. (2005). Effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like Exposure on the Gonadal Function and Haematological Parameters of Male Mice Magy Onkol. 49(2):149-51 [Article in Hungarian]
42. Forgacs Z, Z Somosy, G Kubinyi, J Bakos (2005) Effect of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 22(1): 111-17.
43. Fracki S, Bablok L, Mezynski J. (1994). Fertility disturbances in males working as professional computer operators. Ginekol Pol 65: 41–4. [Article in Polish]
44. Gao XF, Wang SM, Peng RY (2007). [Status quo of the researches on the biological effect of electromagnetic radiation on the testis and epididymal sperm]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 13(9):826-9
45. Gorodetskaia SF, Kerova NI. (1966). [Changes in some functional and biochemical criteria in animal testicles under effect of three centimeter radio waves]. Fiziol Zh. 12(2):246-53. [Article in Ukrainian]
46. Grigor’ev VV, Ogurtsov RP, Zubzhitskiĭ IuN: (1981). [Immunomorphologic changes in the testes upon exposure to a microwave electromagnetic field]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol; 80(2):69-75
47. Gutschi T, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. (2011). Impact of cell phone use on men’s semen parameters. Andrologia. 2011 Mar 28. E-pub ahead of print.
48. Haidt SJ, McTighe AH (1973). The effect of chronic, low-level microwave radiation on the testicles of mice. In: Maley, SW., ed. IEEE-G-MIT International Microwave Symposium, University of Colorado, June 4-6, 1973, pp. 324-325. DOI: 10.1109/GMTT.1973.1123206.
49. Hamada AJ, Singh A and Agarwal A (2011): Cell Phones and their Impact on Male Fertility: Fact or Fiction. The Open Reproductive Science Journal, Special Issue on Advances in Andrology and Male Reproductive Health 3: 125-137.
50. Hardell L, Carlberg M, Ohlson CG, Westberg H, Eriksson M, Hansson Mild K. (2007). Use of cellular and cordless telephones and risk of testicular cancer. Int J Androl.30(2):11522.
51. Hirsh A (2003). Male subfertility. BMJ 327 (7416): 669–72.
52. Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E. & Skotte J. (1997) Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment Reprod. Toxicol. 11(6): 897
53. Hong R, Liu Y, Yu YM, Hu K, Weng EQ. (2003). [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on male reproduction in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 21(5):342-5. [Article in Chinese]
54. Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ. (2005). [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 23(6):414-7.[Article in Chinese].
55. Iorio R, Delle Monache S, Bennato F, Di Bartolomeo C, Scrimaglio R, Cinque B, Colonna RC. (2011). Involvement of mitochondrial activity in mediating ELF-EMF stimulatory effect on human sperm motility. Bioelectromagnetics.32(1):15-27.
56. Iorio R, Scrimaglio R, Rantucci E, Delle Monache S, et al (2007). A preliminary study of oscillating electromagnetic field effects on human spermatozoon motility. Bioelectromagnetics. 28(1):72-5
57. Irgens A, Kruger K, Ulstein M. (1999). The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway. J Occup Environ Med 41: 1116–20.
58. Ivanova LA, Kartashev AG. (1991). [The effect of alternating electric field of industrial frequency on testicles of white mice]. Fiziol Zh. 37(6):71-8. [Article in Russian]
59. James WH. (1998). Sperm counts and offspring sex ratio as monitors of reproductive hazard to people exposed to microwave radiation. Reprod Toxicol. 12(4):495-6. [No abstract]
60. Jørgensen N, Vierula M, Jacobsen R, Pukkala E, Perheentupa A, Virtanen HE, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J. (2011). Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men. Int J Androl. 34(4 Pt 2):e37-48.
61. Kang N, Shang XJ, Huang YF. (2010). [Impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 16(11):1027-30.
62. Kesari KK and Behari J. (2010). Microwave Exposure Affecting Reproductive System in Male Rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 162 (2): 416-428.
63. Kesari KK, Kumar S, & Behari J. (2010). Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 48(10):987-92.
64. Kesari, K.K, Kumar, S & Behari, J. (2011). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 164(4):546-59
65. Kesari, K.K.& Behari, J.(2008). Effect of mobile phone radiation exposure on reproductive system of male rats, IEEE: 564 – 567.
66. Khaki AA, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Rad JS, Khaki A, Farahani RM, Zarrintan S, Nag TC (2006). The effects of an electromagnetic field on the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubules of the rat: A light and transmission electron microscope study. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2006 Aug;65(3):188-94
67. Khaki AA, Zarrintan S, Khaki A, Zahedi A. (2008). The effects of electromagnetic field on the microstructure of seminal vesicles in rat: a light and transmission electron microscope study. Pak J Biol Sci. 11(5):692-701.
68. Khillare B and J Behari (1998) Effect of amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation on reproduction patterns in rats. Electro and Magnetobiology 17(1), 43-55.
69. Kilgallon SJ, Simmons LW. (2005). Image content influences men’s semen quality. Biol Lett.;1:253-5.
70. Kilicalp D, S. Dede, Y. Deger and L. Aslan, (2009). Effects of Green Tea on Mineral Levels of Liver and Testis of Guinea Pigs Electromagnetic Field Emitted by Mobil Phones. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4: 86-92.
71. Knave B, Gamberale F, Bergström S, Birke E, Iregren A, Kolmodin-Hedman B, Wennberg A (1979). Long-term exposure to electric fields. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation of occupationally exposed workers in high-voltage substations. Scand J Work Environ Health 5(2):115-125
72. Kowalczuk CI, Saunders RD, Stapleton HR. (1983). Sperm count and sperm abnormality in mice after exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation Mutat Res. 122(2):155-61
73. Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. (2011). Influence of microwave exposure on fertility of male rats. Fertil Steril. 95(4): 1500-2.
74. Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. (2011). The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 66(7):1237-45.
75. La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, et al. (2011). Effects of the Exposure to Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature. J Androl. 2011 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print]
76. Lähdetie J (1995) Occupation and exposure-related studies on human sperm. J Occup Environ Med. 37: 922-30.
77. Lancranjan I, Miicfnescu M, Rafaili E, Klepsch I, Popescu HI. (1975). Gonadic function in workmen with long-term exposure to microwaves. Health Phys. 29:381-3.
78. Lee, J.S., S.S. Ahn, K.C. Jung, Y.W. Kirn and S.K. Lee (2004). Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice. Asian J. Androl., 6: 29-34.
79. Lerchl A., Bornkessel C.(2010). Letter to the editor on ‘effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit’ by Salama et al. Int J Androl. 33: 95
80. Li DK., Yan B., Gao E., Ferber J. R., Yuan W., et al . (2010). Exposure To Magnetic Fields And The Risk Of Poor Sperm Quality. Reprod Toxicol 29(1):86-92.
81. Linsenmeyer T, Wilmot C, Anderson RU. (1989). The effects of the electroejaculation procedure on sperm motility. Paraplegia. 27(6):465-9.
82. Loft S, Kold-Jensen T, Hjollund NH, Giwercman A, Gyllemborg J, Ernst E, Olsen J, Scheike T, Poulsen HE, Bonde JP. (2003). Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm influences time to pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 18(6):1265-72.
83. Lokhmatova S A (1993). [An ultrastructural analysis of the testes in mice subjected to long-term exposure to a 17-kHz electrical field]. Radiobiologiia.33(3):342-6. [article in Russian].
84. Lokhmatova S A (1994). The effect of low-intensity prolonged impulse electromagnetic irradiation in the UHF range on the testes and the appendages of the testis in rats. Radiat Biol Radioecol 34: 279-285
85. Lokhmatova SA, Pastukhova IuR. (1993). [Morphologic and histoenzymologic analysis of effect of electrical fields at 17 khz on testis and testis appendages in mice]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 27(3):50-4. [Article in Russian]
86. Lukac N Massanyi P, Roychoudhury S, Capcarova M, Tvrda E, Knazicka Z, Kolesarova A, Danko J. (2011). In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 46(12):1417-23
87. Magras IN, Xenos TD (1997). RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics, 18: 455-461.
88. Mailankot M, Kunnath AP, Jayalekshmi H, Koduru B, Valsalan R. (2009). Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 64(6):561-5.
89. Makker K, AC Varghese, NR Desai, R Mouradi, & A Agarwal. (2009). Cell phones: modern man’s nemesis. Reproductive BioMedicine .18(1) 148
90. Makler A, Tatcher M, Vilensky A, Brandes JM. (1980). Factors affecting sperm motility. III. Influence of visible light and other electromagnetic radiations on human sperm velocity and survival. Fertil Steril. 33(4):439-44.
91. Manikowska E., Luciani, J. M., Servantie, B., Czerski, P., Obrenovitch, J., & Stahl, A. (1979) Effects of 9.4 GHz microwave exposure on meiosis in mice. Experientia (Basel), 35: 388-390.
92. Manikowska-Czerska E, Czerski P, Leach WM. (1985). Effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves on meiotic chromosomes of male CBA/CAY mice. J Hered. 76(1):71-3.
93. McGivern RF, Sokol RZ, Adey WR. (1990). Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats. Teratology. 41(1):1-8.
94. McRee DI, Thaxton JP, Parkhurst CR. (1983). Reproduction in male Japanese quail exposed to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Radiat Res. 96(1):51-8.
95. Meo SA, Al-Drees AM, Husain S, Khan MM, Imran MB. (2010). Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats. Saudi Med J. (8):869-73.
96. Meo SA, Arif M, Rashied S, Khan MM, Vohra MS, Usmani AM, Imran MB, Al-Drees AM. (2011). Hypospermatogenesis and spermatozoa maturation arrest in rats induced by mobile phone radiation. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 21(5):262-5.
97. Merhi ZO. (2012). Challenging cell phone impact on reproduction: A Review. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print]
98. Milan PB, DM Nejad, AA Ghanbari, JS Rad, HT Nasrabadi, MH Roudkenar, AM Roushandeh and M Goldust, (2011). Effects of Polygonum aviculare Herbal Extract on Sperm Parameters after EMF Exposure in Mouse. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14: 720-724.
99. Narra VR, Howell RW, Goddu SM, Rao DV. (1996) Effects of a 1.5-Tesla static magnetic field on spermatogenesis and embryogenesis in mice. Invest Radiol, 31(9): 586-590
100. Navakatikian, M.A. and Tomashevskaya, L.A. (1994). Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves of nonthermal intensity. In Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, D.O. Carpenter ed., Academic Press, N.Y. pp. 333-342.
101. Ossenkopp, K.-P., Koltek, T., & Persinger, M.A. (1972). Prenatal exposure to an ELF-rotating magnetic field and increases in thyroid and testicle weights Developmental Psychobiology 5: 275-285
102. Ostrovskaya, I.S., Yashina, L.N., and Yevtushenko, G.l. (1974). Changes in the testes of animals due to a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field. JPRS 66512, p. 51.
103. Otitoloju AA, Obe IA, Adewale OA, Otubanjo OA, Osunkalu VO. (2010). Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 84(1):51-4.
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129. Udinstev, N.A., and Khlynin, S.M. (1977). Effects of an intermittent magnetic field on enzymatic activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and oxygen uptake in testicular tissue. JPRS 72606, p. 8.
130. Wang, Xiao-Wu (2010) Mechanisms involved in the blood–testis barrier increased permeability induced by EMP. Toxicology 276(1): 58-63.
131. Wdowiak A, Wdowiak L, Wiktor H. (2007). Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility. Ann Agric Environ Med. 14(1):16972
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