Saturday, June 07, 2014

BioEM Program 2014


We’ve received about 200 abstracts for the BioEM2014 conference, the joint annual event of the  Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS) and the European BioElectromagnetics Association (EBEA).
There are 11 confirmed invited speakers, who will present plenary sessions and tutorials on various topics in the field. The details of these international experts are listed below. In addition, the meeting will again encourage contributions from students in the field, the future of our community.
Please click here to download the full programme, and here for Programme Boklet Errata.
Don't miss the opportunity to attend an interesting technical program! Register now and be a part of this outstanding event!
Phil Chadwick and Theo Samaras
Technical Program Committee chairs

Plenary Speakers

Topic: Microwave breast imaging
Susan Hagness
Philip Dunham Reed Professor
College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, USA
Susan C. Hagness received the B.S. degree with highest honors and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Northwestern University, Evanston, IL in 1993 and 1998, respectively. Since 1998, she has been with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she currently holds the title of Philip D. Reed Professor. She is also a faculty affiliate of the Department of Biomedical Engineering and a member of the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center.  Her current bioelectromagnetics research interests include microwave breast imaging, microwave thermotherapy, nanoparticles as electromagnetic theranostic agents, and computational electromagnetics theory and applications in biology and medicine.
Dr. Hagness served as an elected member of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society (AP-S) Administrative Committee from 2003 to 2005 and as an Associate Editor for the IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters from 2002 to 2007. She also served as Chair of Commission K of the United States National Committee (USNC) of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) from 2009 to 2011, and Technical Program Chair of the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting. She currently serves as Chair of the IEEE AP-S Fellows Committee. She was the recipient of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers presented by the White House in 2000. In 2002, she was named one of the 100 top young innovators in science and engineering in the world by the MIT Technology Review magazine. She is also the recipient of the UW-Madison Emil Steiger Distinguished Teaching Award (2003), the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Early Career Achievement Award (2004), the URSI Isaac Koga Gold Medal (2005), the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Outstanding Paper Award (2007), the IEEE Education Society Mac E. Van Valkenburg Early Career Teaching Award (2007), the UW System Alliant Energy Underkofler Excellence in Teaching Award (2009), the Physics in Medicine and Biology Citations Prize (2011), and the UW-Madison Kellett Mid-Career Award (2011). She was elected Fellow of the IEEE in 2009.

Topic: The state of the art in electrical impedance tomography
Andy Adler
Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
Andy Adler is professor and Canada Research Chair (Tier II) in biomedical engineering in Systems and Computer Engineering at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. His research interests are in: 1) biometrics imaging and security systems, and the associated algorithms, measurement devices, and privacy and security aspects; and, 2) development of non-invasive biomedical measurement technologies and sensors, including the medical image and signal processing algorithms. He is author of five book chapters, three patents, 76 journal and numerous conference papers. Previously, he taught and researched at the University of Ottawa, and worked in senior technology positions at BioDentity (now cryptometrics), AiT (now 3M), DEW Engineering (now ActivCard), and CIL explosives (now Orica). Andy Adler received the B.A.Sc. (honours) in Engineering Physics from the University of British Columbia in 1990, and a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from the École Polytechnique de Montréal in 1995. He also worked at postdoctoral positions at McGill University and the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

Topic: Making sense of non-sense: The study of magnetic alignment in vertebrates
Hynek Burda
Department of General Zoology, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Hynek Burda was born in 1952 in the Czech Republic. He studied zoology at the Charles University in Prague and served from 1977-1984 as a research assistant (since 1981 as a research associate) at the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague. In the period 1984-1986 he was a senior lecturer at the Department of Biology, University of Zambia in Lusaka. In 1986 he received an Alexander v. Humboldt Research Fellowship and later worked as a research associate at the Zoological Institute of the J.W.Goethe-University in Frankfurt am Main and as a research associate and lecturer of human anatomy at the Centre of Morphology, School of Human Medicine; J.W.Goethe-University in Frankfurt am Main. Since 1995 he is a Full Professor (Ordinarius, C4) and chair in General Zoology at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Since 2000 he is also a visiting professor at the Faculty of Biology, South Bohemian University, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. His research interests include hearing biology of mammals, sensory biology and ecology of subterranean mammals, all aspects of biology, systematics and evolution of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) and biogeography of small mammals of the Zambezian region.

Topic: Staying in Shape: Membrane Voltage as a Master Regulator of Tissue Shape During Regeneration
Wendy Scott Beane
Department of Biological Sciences, Western Michigan University, USA
Shape is essential...from single proteins to entire organisms. Shape changes and tissue remodeling drive development, disease and even aging. But despite its importance, we still know very little about how overall tissue and body shape is established, maintained, and (following injury) restored. Dr. Beane's research group uses the awesome regenerative powers of the planarian flatworm to investigate these questions of shape. Planaria are remarkable in that they can regenerate any and all tissues, even brain! This allows us to study how the many different cellular activities (migration, division, gene regulation, even cell death) are coordinated across thousands of cells to ensure that regenerating planarians always took like that stereotypical "planaria." Uncovering those mechanisms which control the regeneration of shape has the potential to highlight new therapeutic strategies for treating lost or damaged organs and limbs. The main questions currently being explored in the Beane laboratory are:
  • How bioelectrical signaling (membrane voltage and ion flux) controls both new tissue polarity and old tissue remodeling during regeneration.
  • How bioelectrical signaling pathways interact with biochemical developmental signaling pathways.
  • How regeneration is terminated, specifically in the nervous system.

Dr. Beane has received the B.S. in Biomedical Science from Averett University (Danville, VA) and the Ph.D. in Biology, Duke University (Durham, NC). She has worked as a Post Doctoral Fellow in the Levin Lab of the Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology at Tufts University (Medford, MA) before joining Western Michigan University where she is currently an Assistant Professor.

Topic: Reception and learning of electric fields in bees
Uwe Greggers
Neurobiology, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Uwe Greggers, born in 1946, studied Physics at the Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany and received his degree in Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering  from the Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany in 1972. In 1973 he joined the neurobiology research group led by Randolf Menzel at the TU Darmstadt. In 1976 the group moved to the newly established Institute for Neurobiology at the Freie Universität Berlin where Greggers has continued his work as a research associate to this day. Using the honeybee as a model system his investigations have focused on optimal foraging behaviour, learning and memory, and, more recently, on the role of electric fields in dance communication. Since 1999, Greggers has been using harmonic radar tracking technology to investigate navigation strategies in an attempt to elucidate the phenomenon of the honeybee cognitive map.  His findings have been published in numerous high-ranking journals.

Tutorial Speakers

Topic: A tutorial on epidemiology
Martin Röösli
Martin Röösli has a background in atmospheric physics and a PhD in environmental epidemiology. He is Professor at the Swiss Tropical- and Public Health Institute in Basel and leads the Unit for Environmental Exposures and Health.
His research focuses on environmental health and includes exposure assessment studies, aetiological research and health risk assessments in the area of electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, noise exposure, passive smoking, climate change and ambient air pollution.
He conducted several epidemiological studies on personal exposure and health effects of electromagnetic fields including occupational studies in railway workers as well as population based studies dealing with cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and non-specific symptoms of ill health. He is a member in various national and international commissions on environmental health risk and has published numerous scientific papers, reviews and book chapters.
Topic: An introduction to electroporation and its applications
P. Thomas Vernier
P. Thomas Vernier is Engineering Manager of MOSIS at the University of Southern California (USC) Information Sciences Institute and Research Associate Professor in the Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering at USC. His research and industrial experience includes ultraviolet microscopy analysis of S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis, molecular biology of the temperature-sensitive host restriction of bacterial viruses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, low-level environmental gas monitoring, wide-band instrumentation data recording, and physical and electrical characterization and modeling of semiconductor and microelectromechanical devices. He currently concentrates on the effects of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric fields on biological systems, with applications in cancer therapeutics, combining experimental observations with molecular dynamics simulations, and on the integration of cellular and biomolecular sensors, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots with commercial integrated electronic circuit fabrication processes. Vernier received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Southern California in 2004, and is a member of the American Chemical Society, American Society for Microbiology, Bioelectrochemical Society, Bioelectromagnetics Society, Biophysical Society, and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Topic: Sources, levels of exposure & standard
John Bolte
Dr. John Bolte, PhD in Physics (2003) and registered Epidemiologist (2011), works as a senior scientist at the Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) of the Netherlands. He (co-)authored over 15 papers on personal exposure, non-specific health effects and effects on ecology. He was the principal investigator in the 3-year Dutch study: EMF exposure characterisation using personal exposimeters and an Activity Exposure Matrix (EMF AEM) (2007-2010). To prepare for implementation of the original EU workers Directive, EU Directive 2004/40/EC, on the protection of workers, he has, on commission of the Ministry of Social Affairs and employment, investigated and analysed the exposure in the Dutch working environments. He built a classification system for exposure in the working environment and provided a list of possible measures for the protection of workers. He was the Dutch national delegate in COST action BM0704 'Emerging EMF Technologies and Health Risk Management' and a member of WG1 on measurements and WG3 on epidemiology.
Topic: Overview of 50 years of laboratory, animal and human studies
Bernard Veyret
Dr. Bernard Veyret belongs to the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) as “Directeur de Recherche” (senior scientist) at the “Laboratoire de l’Intégration du Matériau au Sytème”, within the College of Chemistry and Physics at the University of Bordeaux 1, France. Trained as an engineer in Physics and Chemistry at the “Industrial Physics and Chemistry Higher Educational Institution” ESPCI in Paris, he joined the CNRS in 1979, got his PhD and did research on the physical chemistry of the troposphere. Since 1984, B. Veyret has turned towards the new field of research on biological effects of electromagnetic fields (bioelectromagnetics). He is now head of the Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory of the ‘École Pratique des Hautes Études’. His research team in Bordeaux is composed of about 15 scientists, biologists and physicists. He was one of the founders of the European Bioelectromagnetics Association (EBEA) in 1989. He spent a sabbatical year at the University of Rome “La Sapienza” during the school year 2005-2006. He belongs to the main commission of ICNIRP (International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection) and is a member of the International Committee of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). B. Veyret has authored more than 75 papers in peer-reviewed journals and co-authored several national and international expert-group reports on EMF and health (he was the chairman of the French expert group on “ELF and health” and is a consultant for the AFSSET on the same topic). He is currently a consultant with WHO, developing a Web-based EMF course for young scientists working in bioelectromagnetics, and has served as the chairman of the research recommendation committee of WHO. He was the coordinator of the European programme Perform-B and was an external reviewer for the RAMPS2001 and TeraHertz-Bridge European programmes. Bernard Veyret was awarded the Medal of the French URSI.

d'Arsonval speaker

Carl F Blackman
Dr. Carl F. Blackman received his Ph.D. in Biophysics at Pennsylvania State University in 1969, performed post-doctoral training at Brookhaven National Laboratory (1969-1970), joined the Bureau of Radiological Health (HEW) in 1970, and later that year was placed in the EPA when it was formed.  Dr. Blackman studied the complexities of electric and magnetic field interactions with biological systems (1970-1998), which included financial support from US DOE 1989-1998.  The research he and his colleagues performed resulted in several discoveries including: that multiple "windows" of intensity and frequency have biological effects; that the earth's magnetic field is involved in some biological responses to EMF; that the oncostatic hormone, melatonin, modulates gap junction intercellular communication; and that magnetic field exposure alters the action of melatonin and nerve growth factor in cells.  He has recently published on the potential for microRNA changes after chemical dosing of mice to be an early predictive biomarker for cancer, and he now coordinates research efforts and is a co-author on the reports testing nano-materials of environmental interest with in vitro endpoints associated with DNA damage and adverse-outcome pathways associated with carcinogenic activity. 

Dr. Blackman was one of six founders of the Bioelectromagnetics Society in 1978, served as president in 1990, on the Editorial Board (14 years), and has served twice on the Board of Directors (1979-1980; 2007-2010).  He served on numerous national and international scientific committees, including the WHO (Environmental Health Criteria #137, 1993 - RFR health implications), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, Volume 80, 2002 - Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields; and IARC, Vol. 102, to be published in 2012: Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part II: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields), the ANSI/IEEE (1992, US Radiofrequency Radiation exposure guidelines), and the US National Council of Radiation and Measurement's committee (SC 79, chaired by Adey - health effects of ELF EMF).  He has reviewed grant applications for 17 organizations and manuscripts for 60 organizations.  

Dr. Blackman is a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, American Society for Photobiology, the Biophysics Society, Bioelectromagnetics Society, European BioElectromagnetics Association, and the Society for In Vitro Biology.  He has authored or co-authored 65 peer-reviewed publications, 24 reviews & invited commentaries, 65 invited presentations, and 147 abstracts.  He has mentored one scientist on sabbatical leave, four scientists as post-doctoral students, and 13 undergraduate students, and has been an external examiner for two doctoral theses. 

BioEM2014 Program at a glance

Please click here to download the full preliminary programme.
Sunday 8 June 2014
BEMS and EBEA Board meetings08:00-17:00Table Bay Hotel
Registration17:00-19:00The Pavilion Conference Centre, Clock Tower Centre
Welcome function18:00-20:00The Pavilion Conference Centre, Clock Tower Centre
Student ice breaker19:00-21:00TBC
Monday 9 June 2014
Scientific sessions08:30-17:00Table Bay Hotel
Tuesday 10 June 2014
Scientific sessions08:00-18:00Table Bay Hotel
Conference Dinner19:00-23:00BAIA Seafood Restaurant, V & A Waterfront
Wednesday 11 June 2014
Scientific sessions08:00-13:00Table Bay Hotel
Tours/Free time13:00-17:00
Thursday 12 June 2014
Scientific sessions08:00-19:00Table Bay Hotel
Friday 13 June 2014
Scientific sessions08:00-12:00Table Bay Hotel
Closing ceremony12:00-13:00Table Bay Hotel
BEMS and EBEA Board meetings14:00-17:00Table Bay Hotel

Social program

Sunday 8 June 2014
Welcome function:  The Pavilion Conference Centre, Clock Tower Centre, V & A Waterfront @ 18:00
With the magnificent Table Mountain in the background and it's expansive views over Table Bay and the Waterfront, The Pavilion Conference Centre offers a glorious setting for business and private events. The Pavilion is conveniently locatedwithin Cape Town's expansive and internationally famous Waterfront, overlooking Cape Town's harbour, twenty minutes from Cape Town's International Airport and only five minutes from the Cape Town City Centre.
Tuesday  10 June
Conference Dinner:  BAIA Seafood Restaurant, V & A Waterfront @ 19:00
Set in a prime spot at the Victoria Wharf, Baía (pronounced Ba-hia and meaning the Bay) enjoys spectacular panoramic harbour and ocean views.  Baía specializes in the finest seafood from around southern Africa, the finest poultry, beef and venison and a renowned wine-list with rare Cape vintage wines and imported liqueur selection – and has earned the reputation as the place to indulge in the best seafood platter in the Cape.
Wednesday 11 June
All Congress delegates are encouraged to explore the beauty of Cape Town and surroundings during the afternoon at own leisure.  Please click here for suggested half day tour options.

Friday, June 06, 2014

Canberra neurosurgeon writes about smart meters…

Canberra neurosurgeon writes about smart meters…

Posted on June 6, 2014 by Stop Smart Meters Australia
Here is what Dr Vini G. Khurana MBBS (Syd, Hons), BScMed (Syd, Hons), PhD (Mayo Clinic), FRACS, neurosurgeon from Canberra, thinks about wireless smart meters:
The Australian electrical utility company Citipower (Powercor) is currently rolling out “smart meters” in Australian homes. There are public concerns regarding possible health effects that such a device might have via continuous near-field electromagnetic radiation emissions (especially if situated near bed-heads and family and childrens’ rooms). Info about smart meter health and safety issues via Citipower’s own brochure (CLICK HERE) appears inadequate based on information gathered from experts elsewhere (see links below). Regarding smart meters:
* There does not appear to be any real benefit for consumers/households and no “green” benefit either
* Financial benefits following installation appear to be exclusively for power companies
* DETRIMENTAL effects for consumers appear to be (i) a substantial rise in household utility bills; (ii) possible adverse neurological effects in people who sustain close proximity to the meters (especially < 10 feet/3 metres); (iii) invaded personal privacy via third parties obtaining information about household occupancy patterns gleaned from time-specific utility usage data, (iv) impending additional wireless meter installations for gas, water, television and communication devices etc.

Carl Sagan on the dangers of not questioning new technology

Carl Sagan on the dangers of not questioning new technology

Sent in by Lindley Turnbull
A Science Icon Died 17 Years Ago. In his Last Interview, He Made A Warning That Gives Me Goosebumps.
by Rajiv Narayan,
Carl Sagan inspired a generation of scientists with his work in and out of the classroom. But he didn’t always present science with cheer. In this clip, he passionately defends science with a grave warning. It’s something we all need to hear.
Extract from an Interview with Charlie Rose, 27 May 1996
(text transcribed by the editor of blog:
Sagan: …We live in an age based on science and technology with formidable technological powers.
Rose: Science and technology are propelling us forward at accelerating rates.
Sagan: That’s right, and if we don’t understand it, by “we” I mean the general public – “ if it’s something I’m not good at, I don’t know anything about” then, who’s making all the decisions about science and technology that are going to determine what kind of future our children live in? Just some members of Congress? But there is no more than a handful of members of Congress with any background in science at all and the Republican Congress has just abolished its own office of technology assessment, the organization that gave them bipartisan competent advice on science and technology. “We don’t want to know. Don’t tell us about science and technology.”
Rose: What is the danger of all this?
Sagan: There are two kinds of dangers. One is what I just talked about, that we’ve arranged a society based on science and technology in which nobody understands anything about science and technology and this combustible mixture of ignorance and power sooner or later is going to blow up in our faces. Who is running the science and technology in a democracy if the people don’t know anything about it?
The second reason that I’m worried about this is that science is more than a body of knowledge. It’s a way of thinking, a way of skeptically interrogating the universe with a fine understanding of human fallibility. If we are not able to ask skeptical questions, to interrogate those who tell us that something is true, to be skeptical of those in authority, then we are up for grabs for the next charlatan, political, or religious who comes ambling along.
It’s a thing that Jefferson laid great stress on. It wasn’t enough, he said, to enshrine some rights in the Constitution or the Bill of Rights. The people had to be educated and they had to practice their skepticism and their education. Otherwise, we don’t run the Government. The Government runs us.

Refuge Sign-up Sheet

Refuge Sign-up Sheet

Please Forward to Interested Parties:

I had posted, some time back, a refuge page on my website which includes a sign-up sheet for a marketing survey and locational interests. My searches are in New England, Canada, and South America at present for something permanent--Art Kab is working on his own to find something in CA and is collecting names separately for his search.

Here is the direct link to my sign-up sheet which is discussed further on my website (see below): I've improved and updated it to reflect the present--I'm willing to go just about anywhere now! Still, I haven't gotten many sign ups and likely need to do more advertising in order to determine whether enough financing exists. I know people are not always able or willing to commit to change. For those that are, there needs to be a way to connect, whether in New England, Canada, or elsewhere.

I found a possible location in MA for 900K, of approx. 65 acres, but am uncertain of whether to pursue this, due to the building of wireless towers in the States and the densely populated East coast. Building may drag through several more years and require continued fighting, and then there is the price tag--there are better buys if not better locations. This is a question for later, although I'm considering whether a more remote outpost in Canada might be more feasible to avoid cell tower development and control costs, as well as perhaps accessing supports for EHS, a recognized disability.  

If the locations I mentioned seem possible, please give it a look and sign up if interested further. Art is collecting names & information for CA--I'm not looking at CA directly, but of course am open to moving there if Art finds something workable. Either way, a list of investors is necessary for a reasonable understanding of possibilities. This is a survey only at present.

Best, Kirstin

--See "Refuge Openings and Development" page for further information on ideas for refuge.

Cellphones are affecting your brain: research

Cellphones are affecting your brain: research

New research shows that, at the very least, exposure to mobile radiation may be affecting your memory.

June 6, 2014
Cellphones are affecting your brain: research

With contrasting studies being published accusing and clearing cellphones of causing certain kinds of brain cancer, new research shows that, at the very least, exposure to mobile radiation may be affecting the way you think.
The research, published in the Neurological Research journal, claims that exposure to cellular radiation leads to neurological degeneration, causing alterations in the way mobile users learn and remember things.
The study, which was based on tests done on rats, sought to obtain basic information about the effects of long-term use of mobile phones on the brain – specifically, the effects on cognitive behavior.
The test rats were exposed to 900 MHz radio waves by means of a mobile hand set for 4 hours per day for 15 days.
The researchers then studied the effects on anxiety, spatial learning and memory, by putting the rats through open field and maze tests. Effects on brain antioxidant status were also studied.
The results, the paper said, were a significant change in behavior – ie, more anxiety and poor learning was shown by test rats as compared to controls and sham group.
“Our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves,” the researchers said.
“A significant change in level of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and increase in lipid peroxidation were observed in test rats. Histological examination showed neurodegenerative cells in hippocampal sub regions and cerebral cortex.”

Are phones killing us slowly?

In May, a peer-reviewed study found evidence that intensive mobile phone use could put cellphone users at risk of developing certain types of brain cancer – though regular users appeared to be safe.
The study was conducted by researchers from Bordeaux University and published in the peer-reviewed Occupational & Environmental Medicine journal.
The researchers found no association between regular mobile phone use and risk of the brain tumour (phoning at least once a week for six months or more); however, it did find an increased risk of common types of brain tumors with intensive mobile phone use (active calling for more than 15 hours per month).
The findings are counter to another study by the Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research (MTHR) Programme, which found that exposure to radiation from mobile phones and base stations will not increase the risk of developing cancer.
Both groups of researchers conceded that the short time that mobile phone use has been widespread, no studies have been properly able to investigate risk in relation to long-term use, and pointed to the COSMOS cohort study currently being implemented in Europe to investigate the long-term impact of mobile phone use.

Cisco Visual Networking Index Predicts Annual Internet Traffic to Grow More Than 20 Percent (reaching 1.6 Zettabytes) by 2018

Cisco Visual Networking Index Predicts Annual Internet Traffic to Grow More Than 20 Percent (reaching 1.6 Zettabytes) by 2018

More Traffic Will Traverse Global Networks in 2018 Than All Prior "Internet Years" Combined; Ultra-HD/4K Adoption and M2M Technologies Including Smart Cars Among Key Growth Drivers

– According to the Cisco® Visual Networking Index™ Global Forecast and Service Adoption for 2013 to 2018, global Internet Protocol (IP) traffic will increase nearly three-fold over the next five years due to more Internet users and devices, faster broadband speeds and more video viewing. Global IP traffic for fixed and mobile connections is expected to reach an annual run rate of 1.6 zettabytes* – more than one and a half trillion gigabytes per year by 2018. The projected annual IP traffic for 2018 will be greater than all IP traffic that has been generated globally from 1984 – 2013 (1.3 zettabytes).
The composition of IP traffic will shift dramatically in the coming few years. During the forecast period, the majority of traffic will originate from devices other than personal computers (PCs) for the first time in the history of the Internet. Wi-Fi traffic will exceed wired traffic for the first time and high-definition (HD) video will generate more traffic than standard definition (SD) video.
The Internet of Everything is also gaining momentum and by 2018 there will be nearly as many machine-to-machine (M2M) connections as there are people on earth. Smart cars will have nearly four M2M modules per car.
World Cup 2014 to Drive Internet Traffic
With the FIFA World Cup 2014 set to begin on Thursday (June 12), millions of people are expected to view games and/or highlights via the Internet. Video streaming and IP broadcast of the World Cup is anticipated to generate 4.3 exabytes of IP traffic, which is three times the amount of monthly IP traffic currently generated by Brazil (this year's World Cup host city). In addition, Internet traffic generated by the 60,000 people in a stadium and traveling to games is forecasted to surpass the busy-hour** traffic from all 94 million smartphone subscribers in Brazil.
Global IP traffic is expected to reach 132 exabytes per month by 2018, which is the equivalent to:
  • 8.8 billion screens streaming the FIFA World Cup final game in Ultra-HD/4K at the same time;
  • 5.5 billion people binge-watching "Game of Thrones" Season 4 via video-on-demand in HD or 1.5 billion watching in Ultra-HD/4K;
  • 4.5 trillion YouTube clips; and
  • 940 quadrillion text messages.
This updated Cisco VNI Forecast includes global fixed IP traffic growth and service adoption trends complements the Cisco VNI Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast released earlier this year.
*A zettabyte is equal to 1,000 exabytes and precedes the yottabyte unit of measurement.
** Busy-hour is a 60-minute period with the maximum total traffic load in a given 24-hour period.
Key Findings: Global Traffic Projections and Service Adoption Drivers
1) IP Traffic
  • Mobile and portable devices other than PCs will drive the majority of traffic by 2018. In 2013, 33 percent of IP traffic originated with non-PC devices, however, by 2018, the non-PC share of IP traffic will grow to 57 percent. PC-originated traffic will grow at a 10 percent compound annual growth rate (CAGR), while other devices/connections will have higher traffic growth rates over the forecast period including TVs (18 percent), tablets (74 percent), smartphones (64 percent) and M2M connections (84 percent).
  • Busy-hour Internet traffic is increasing faster than average Internet traffic. Busy-hour Internet traffic increased 32 percent in 2013, compared to 25 percent growth in average Internet traffic.
  • Traffic originating in metro networks surpassed traffic traversing long-haul links in 2013. Metro traffic will grow nearly twice as fast as long-haul traffic from 2013 to 2018. This growth is due in part to content delivery networks, which will carry more than half of total Internet traffic by 2018.
2) IP Video
  • IP video will be 79 percent of all IP traffic by 2018, up from 66 percent in 2013.
  • Ultra HD video will account for 11 percent of IP video traffic by 2018, up from 0.1 percent in 2013. HD video will account for 52 percent of IP video traffic by 2018 (up from 36 percent) and SD will account for the remaining 37 percent (down from 64 percent).
3) IP Traffic by Access Type
  • Wi-Fi and mobile-connected devices will generate 61 percent of IP traffic by 2018. Wi-Fi will be 49 percent and cellular will be 12 percent. Fixed traffic will be only 39 percent of total IP traffic by 2018. In comparison, Wi-Fi was 41 percent; cellular was 3 percent; and fixed was 56 percent in 2013.
  • Wi-Fi and mobile-connected devices will generate 76 percent of Internet traffic by 2018 Wi-Fi will be 61 percent and cellular will be 15 percent. Fixed traffic will be only 24 percent of total Internet traffic by 2018. In comparison, Wi-Fi was 55 percent; cellular was 4 percent; and fixed was 41 percent in 2013.
4) Devices/Connections
  • By 2018, there will be nearly 21 billion global network connections (fixed/mobile personal devices, M2M connections, et al.), up from about 12.4 billion connections in 2013.
  • There will be 2.7 networked devices/connections globally per capita by 2018, up from 1.7 per capita in 2013.
  • There will be 7.3 billion M2M connections globally, or nearly one M2M connection per capita, based on a 7.6 billon population by 2018.
  • There will be 10 billion IPv6-capable fixed and mobile devices in 2018, up from 2 billion in 2013.
5) Increasing Broadband Speeds
  • Global broadband speeds will reach 42 Mbps by 2018, up from 16 Mbps at the end of 2013.
  • The majority of broadband connections, estimated at 55 percent, will be faster than 10 Mbps by 2018. Average broadband speeds in Japan and South Korea will approach 100 Mbps by 2018.
6) Advanced Service Adoption
  • Online video will be the fastest growing residential internet service with a CAGR of 10 percent from 2013-2018, growing from 1.2 billion users to 1.9 billion users by 2018.
  • Mobile location-based services will be the fastest growing consumer mobile service with a CAGR of 36 percent from 2013 to 2018, growing from 236 million users in 2013 to more than 1 billion users by 2018.
  • Desktop and personal videoconferencing will be the fastest growing business Internet service with a CAGR of 45 percent from 2013 to 2018, growing from 37 million users in 2013 to 238 million users by 2018.
Key Regional & Country Growth Projections
  • The Asia-Pacific (APAC) region will generate the most IP traffic by 2018, with 47.6 exabytes (36 percent of the global IP traffic) per month. With the world's largest population and the most devices/connections, APAC's increased network usage will maintain its position as the top traffic-generating region through 2018.
  • The Middle East and Africa (MEA) region will continue to be the fastest growing IP traffic region from 2013 – 2018 with a five-fold growth and a 38 percent CAGR.
  • By 2018, the highest traffic-generating countries will be the United States with 37 exabytes per month and China with 18 exabytes per month.
  • The countries with the fastest IP traffic growth will be India with a 39 percent CAGR from 2013 to 2018, followed by Indonesia with a 37 percent CAGR.
Cisco VNI Forecast Implications for Service Providers
  • Service provider networks must adapt to the increasing number of devices, such as tablets, smartphones and M2M connections, that will need to be authenticated to access fixed/mobile networks with enhanced security and service prioritization.
  • The evolution of advanced video services, such as HD/ultra HD video, may create new bandwidth and scalability requirements for service providers. Residential, business and mobile consumers continue to have strong demand for advanced video services across all network and device types with quality of service, convenience, and price as key factors for success.
  • Continued business video adoption, such as HD and web-based video conferencing and business VoD may prompt greater growth in network virtualization and leveraging the Internet for video transmission with network ramifications for service providers and over-the-top providers.
  • 4G network growth and service adoption may grow faster as mobile users continue to demand similar service and content experiences from their fixed and mobile networks. Wi-Fi is going to become increasingly important in providing offload for mobile devices and connectivity for a growing array of portable devices and M2M connections.
  • IP networks must be intelligent and flexible enough to support the constant introduction of new/updated applications for fixed and mobile networks. Many service providers are actively collaborating with application developers to differentiate their services.
Cisco VNI Methodology
The Cisco VNI Global Forecast and Service Adoption for 2013 to 2018 rely upon independent analyst forecasts and real-world mobile data usage studies. Upon this foundation are layered Cisco's own estimates for global IP traffic and service adoption. A detailed methodology description is included in the complete report (see link below).
Supporting Quote
  • Doug Webster, Vice President of Products and Solutions Marketing, Cisco
"Our first Cisco Visual Networking Index nine years ago established the zettabyte as a major milestone for global IP traffic. Today, we are firmly in the ‘Zettabyte Era' and witnessing incredible innovations and shifts in the industry. The reality of the Internet of Everything (IoE), the increasing demand for network mobility, and the emergence of 4K video are among the key trends highlighted in this year's forecast that represent significant opportunities for service providers today and in the immediate future."
Photo and Video
  • Doug Webster, Vice President of Products and Solutions Marketing, Cisco
  • Cisco Visual Networking Index Global IP Traffic Forecast and Service Adoption  (2013-2018) Overview:
Additional Supporting Resources
Cisco VNI Webcast
Cisco invites press, analysts and bloggers to attend a webcast featuring Cisco executives talking about the global impact of IP traffic and service adoption growth for service providers, organizations and consumers. The pre-recorded webcast begins at 9:00 a.m. (PDT) today and can be accessed by registering at Cisco VNI Global IP Traffic Forecast and Service Adoption (2013-2018).
Editor's Notes
Cisco also welcomes press, analysts, bloggers, service providers, regulators and other interested parties to use and reference our research with proper attribution, such as "Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index Global IP Traffic Forecast and Service Adoption, 2013-2018."
To access b-roll, visit the Cisco Online Press Room and follow username and password instructions (Folder Name: PR; File Name: Cisco Visual Networking Index Global IP Traffic Forecast and Service Adoption, June 2014).
Cisco, Service Provider, Visual Networking Index, VNI, VNI SA, service adoption, VNI Forecast,  Internet Protocol, IP traffic, Wi-Fi, WiFi, machine-to-machine, M2M, Internet of Everything, IoE, IPv6, broadband, Doug Webster, Robert Pepper, traffic trends, collaboration applications, networking applications
About Cisco
Cisco (NASDAQ: CSCO) is the worldwide leader in IT that helps companies seize the opportunities of tomorrow by proving that amazing things can happen when you connect the previously unconnected. For ongoing news, please go to
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Volkswagen - Eyes on the road

Volkswagen - Eyes on the road

Thursday, June 05, 2014

Wireless Communication and Precautionary Principle (Dariusz Leszczynski)

Wireless Communication and Precautionary Principle (Dariusz Leszczynski)

From the blog of Dariusz Leszczynski, “Between A Rock And A Hard Place”:
Today, the June/July 2014 issue of the Canadian ‘The Green Gazette’ published my article about the need for implementation of the Precautionary Principle in area of the wireless communication.
NOTE: The story in ‘The Green Gazette’ is freely available from Dariusz Leszczynski’s site as well as a printable version of the article: