Protective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone EMR-induced infertility in rats
Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Aug 15;8(8):12487-97. eCollection 2015.
The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry.
The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract.
The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.
Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam (Family: Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant in tropical and subtropical countries where it is mostly cultivated. The leaves are highly nutritious, being a good source of β-carotene, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid, pyridoxine, protein, vitamins A, B, C and E, amino acids, various phenolic compounds and minerals . MO leaves are highly nutritious, being a significant source of sterols, alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic and flavonoids . Almost all the parts of these plants have been used for various ailments in the indigenous medicine of South Asia, including the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases along with gastrointestinal cardiovascular, hematological and hepatorenal disorders .Moringa Oleifera has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cholesterol lowering, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective effects . Leaves of Moringa Oleifera have been reported to regulate thyroid status and possess radio-protective effect. The plant has also been reported to be hepatoprotective against anti-tubercular drug and acetaminophen [15,16]. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of aqueous extract of Moringa Oleifera against testis damage induced by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation in rats.
The rats were divided into four equal groups; 15 rats each group. The 1st group (the control group) received only standard diet. The 2nd group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of MO leaves . The 3rd group was exposed to 900 MHz continuous RF/MW fields for one hour every day and for 7 days a week. The 4th group was exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic radiation and received the Moringa Oleifera extract.
All animals in control and experimental groups were housed collectively in polycarbonate cages 30 × 40 × 40 cm (W × L × H). The experimental group was continually exposed to EMR from mobile phone. The radiation of microwave was manufactured by a mobile test phone (model NOKIA 3110; Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd.). A 900 MHz EMR near-field signal for GSM (Mobile communication at 900 MHz for Global System, continuous wave, analog phone) system was used. The mobile phone was located in the cage center, while the distance between mobile phone from the bottom of cage was 3 cm and maximal distance from the cage corners was 28.2 cm .
This study indicates that EMR attenuated-related testicular dysfunction and histopathological change. MOE renewed the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes, downregulated the levels of ROS and increased PCNA activity in the testis of EMR exposed. MO consequently improved EMR-induced oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in the testes of rats. The long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation can cause hypospermatogenesis and maturation arrest of spermatozoa in the testes of rats. However, Moringa Oleiferaleaf extract had a protective effect against the infertility-induced by EMR which was manifested by the improvement in sperm parameters of rats treated with EMR and Moringa Oleifera leaf extract.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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