Thursday, March 26, 2015

World Health Organization Call for Examples of Good Risk Management Practices.

World Health Organization Call for Examples of Good Risk Management Practices.

Best regards, Isaac 

People's Republic of China
In the WHO's EMF database for the People's Republic of China there is a review by Cao (2007) documenting the findings of general EMF-related health research in China from 1994 to 2006.
From the total of 383 Chinese papers investigating EMF biological effects in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databank (this figure excludes papers investigating: EMF medical treatment; EMF prevention; EMF regulation, environmental EMF exposure assessment; and restricted People's Liberation Army research papers on the topic), it is stated that there were 109 epidemiological studies. 108 of these noted biological effects as a result of exposure.
In the epidemiological studies reviewed, 32 were for exposure levels higher than EMF exposure limits for members of the general public in China. The other 77 papers were for exposure levels lower than public exposure limits in China. Details of these exposure limits provided by Chiang (2009) are given below (Table 1).
Table 1: General Public Exposure Limits to RF/microwave radiation in China
1st class exposure limits
2nd class exposure limits
0.1-30 MHz
10 V/m
25 V/m
>30-300 MHz
5 V/m
12 V/m
>0.3-300 GHz
10 μW/cm2
40 μW/cm2
Source: Chiang (2009).

1st class exposure limits: Exposures below these levels thought to be safe for permanent exposure and all people (including infants, pregnant mothers, patients, older people, etc.).

2nd class exposure limits: Exposures below these levels acceptable for short-term exposures (factories, parks, recreation spaces, etc.). Living quarters, hospitals, schools, kindergartens, etc., not allowed to receive such exposures.
Health effects for the 108 epidemiological studies that reported effects included: abnormal ECG; disorder of immunoglobulin; miscarriage; neurasthenia; poor sleep quality; and sperm dysfunction. Quoting Cao (2007): "No matter what the exposure level may be, lower or higher than [the Chinese] EMF exposure limits for public, health effects had been reported in these papers. ..."

Actual exposure levels for the general public in China are well below the rigorous Chinese General Public Exposure Limits. Chiang (2009) remarked that in 3 Chinese cities assessed around 1% of the urban population was exposed to levels >1V/m or 2 μW/cm2, and that "Only a very small percentage may be exposed to levels comparable to the [Chinese] limits (in most cases for short time only)." ...
It would appear prudent to obtain translations of the epidemiological studies documented above, so that they can be added to the WHO database and properly assessed by those setting EMF guidelines. 

Cao, Z. (2007), General EMF and Health Research in China (1994-2006). National activity report from China, NIEHS of China CDC, 3pp. emf/project/mapnatreps/China_2007_EMF_activity_report.pdf
Chiang, H. (2009), Rationale for Setting EMF Exposure Standards,

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