Friday, July 25, 2014

Neuroprotective effects of dietary supplement Kang-fu-ling against high-power microwave through antioxidant action

Neuroprotective effects of dietary supplement Kang-fu-ling against high-power microwave through antioxidant action

Hu S, Peng R, Wang C, Wang S, Gao Y, Dong J, Zhou H, Su Z, Qiao S, Zhang S, Wang L, Wen X.Neuroprotective effects of dietary supplement Kang-fu-ling against high-power microwave through antioxidant action. Food Funct. 2014 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print]


Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm-2 HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of KFL against HPM-induced oxidative stress. In summary, the dietary supplement KFL is a promising natural complex, which ameliorates oxidative stress, with neuroprotective effects against HPM.


The Compound Chinese Medicine “Kang Fu Ling” Protects against High Power Microwave-Induced Myocardial Injury

Zhang X, Gao Y, Dong J, Wang S, Yao B, et al. (2014) The Compound Chinese Medicine “Kang Fu Ling” Protects against High Power Microwave-Induced Myocardial Injury. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101532. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101532.



The prevention and treatment of Microwave-caused cardiovascular injury remains elusive. This study investigated the cardiovascular protective effects of compound Chinese medicine “Kang Fu Ling” (KFL) against high power microwave (HPM)-induced myocardial injury and the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in KFL protection.


Male Wistar rats (100) were divided into 5 equal groups: no treatment, radiation only, or radiation followed by treatment with KFL at 0.75, 1.5, or 3 g/kg/day. Electrocardiography was used to Electrophysiological examination. Histological and ultrastructural changes in heart tissue and isolated mitochondria were observed by light microscope and electron microscopy. mPTP opening and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Connexin-43 (Cx-43) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) was detected by western blotting.


At 7 days after radiation, rats without KFL treatment showed a significantly lower heart rate (P<0 .01="" 1.5="" 7="" a="" after="" also="" and="" br="" compared="" consequent="" controls="" cx-43="" d="" day="" decrease="" decreased="" dye-treated="" evident.="" exhibited="" expression="" flavorfully="" fluorescence="" for="" g="" heart="" in="" increased="" inhibition="" intensities="" intensity="" irradiated="" j="" kfl="" kg="" membrane="" microwave-induced="" mitochondria="" mitochondrial="" morphology.="" mptp="" myocyte="" myocytes="" normal="" of="" opening="" point="" potential.="" preservation="" protein="" rate="" rats="" rearrangement="" reduced="" reduction="" reversed.="" rupture="" shift.="" shift="" significantly="" suggesting="" swelling="" than="" the="" to="" treatment="" untreated="" vdac="" was="" were="" with="">

Microwave radiation can cause electrophysiological, histological and ultrastructural changes in the heart. KFL at 1.5 g/kg/day had the greatest protective effect on these cardiovascular events. mPTP plays an important role in the protective effects of KFL against microwave-radiation-induced myocardial injury.

Open Access Paper:

... we focused on “Kang Fu Ling” (KFL), a compound isolated from Chinese medicine astragalus, red peony, salvia, ophelia, and wolfberry. 

The increased risk of damage to the mitochondria is associated with the massive opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) under pathological conditions of mitochondrial calcium overload [12][14]. We have found previously that KFL significantly decreased calcium level and activities of serum myocardial enzymes, such as creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), etc, after microwave radiation [15]. Thus, we hypothesized now that the inhibition of mPTP opening by KFL may be responsible for its myocardial protection effects from HPM-induced myocardial injury. Indeed, in this study we found that changes of several mPTP associated protein expression after microwave radiation could be reverted by KFL treatment. This study sheds new light on the role of mPTP in mitochondrial dysfunction and molecular basis of KFL protection.

Mitochondria are extremely important organelles in myocytes, accounting for 40–60% of the cell volume [18]. The mPTP multi-protein complex in the mitochondrial membrane is a key component in mitochondrial signal transduction [19]. Excessive mPTP opening leads to a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and is associated with numerous heart diseases [20][21]. Under normal physiological condition, mPTPs are closed. The inner mitochondrial membrane is selectively permeable, allowing passage of some metabolic substrates and ions but not others. Under certain conditions, including calcium overload, oxidative stress, and impaired signal transduction, the mPTPs open and thus allow larger molecules to enter the mitochondria, causing increased osmolality of the mitochondrial matrix. This condition may lead to mitochondrial swelling, rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane, leakage of pro-apoptotic proteins (such as cytochrome C) into the cytoplasm, abolition of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, uncoupling of the respiratory chain from oxidative phosphorylation, discontinuation of Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) synthesis, finally resulting in cell death [22][23].

... we now find that “ KFL”, a compound from traditional Chinese medicine protected rats from HPM-induced myocardial injury and also reverted mPTP opening induced by microwave radiation. After treatment of irradiated rats with 1.5g/kg/day KFL for 7 d, the heart rate recovered significantly (P<0 .01="" also="" and="" by="" fluorescence="" increased="" inhibition="" intensity="" j="" kfl="" membrane="" mitochondria="" mitochondrial="" moreover="" morphology.="" mptp="" myocytes="" normal="" of="" opening="" point="" potential.="" preservation="" reverted="" shift="" significantly="" span="" stained="" structures="" suggesting="" the="" treatment="" was="" were="">

... These findings support that mPTP plays an important role in the protective effects of KFL against microwave-radiation–induced myocardial injury. However, whether mPTP is the final effecter, how KFL acts on mPTP, and what other signaling pathways are involved in this action remain to be determined by further studies.

Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

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