Marjanovic AM, Pavicic I, Trosic I. Cell oxidation-reduction imbalance after modulated radiofrequency radiation. Electromagn Biol Med. 2015 Aug 28:1-6. [Epub ahead of print].
Aim of this study was to evaluate an influence of modulated radiofrequency field (RF) of 1800 MHz, strength of 30 V/m on oxidation-reduction processes within the cell.
The assigned RF field was generated within Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell equipped by signal generator, modulator, and amplifier. Cell line V79, was irradiated for 10, 30, and 60 min, specific absorption rate was calculated to be 1.6 W/kg. Cellmetabolic activity and viability was determined by MTT assay. In order to define total protein content, colorimetric method was used. Concentration of oxidised proteins was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) marked with fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate were measured by means of plate reader device.
In comparison with control cell samples, metabolic activity and total protein content in exposed cells did not differ significantly. Concentrations of carbonyl derivates, a product of protein oxidation, insignificantly but continuously increase with duration of exposure. In exposed samples, ROS level significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 10 min of exposure. Decrease in ROS level was observed after 30-min treatment indicating antioxidant defence mechanism activation.
In conclusion, under the given laboratory conditions, modulated RF radiation might cause impairment in cell oxidation-reduction equilibrium within the growing cells.
KEYWORDS: Modulated RF; ROS; non-thermal; oxidised proteins; redox processes
AbstractThis review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells.
Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies.
In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.
The analysis of modern data on biological effects of lowi-ntensity RFR leads to a firm conclusion that this physical agent is a powerful oxidative stressor for living cell. The oxidative efficiency of RFR can be mediated via changes in activities of key ROS-generating systems, including mitochondria and non-phagocytic NADH oxidases, via direct effects on water molecules, and via induction of conformation changes in biologically important macromolecules. In turn, a broad biological potential of ROS and other free radicals, including both their mutagenic effects and their signaling regulatory potential, makes RFR a potentially hazardous factor for human health. We suggest minimizing the intensity and time of RFR exposures, and taking a precautionary approach towards wireless technologies in everyday human life.
Open Access Review Paper: http://www.tandfonline.com/
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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