The Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation of Different Parameters on Platelet Oxygen Metabolism - In Vitro Studies
Lewicka M, Henrykowska GA, Pacholski K, Szczęsny A, Dziedziczak-Buczyńska M, Buczyński A. The Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation of Different Parameters on Platelet Oxygen Metabolism - In Vitro Studies. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015 Jan-Feb;24(1):31-35. doi: 10.17219/acem/38169.
BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic radiation emitted by a variety of devices, e.g. cell phones, computers and microwaves, interacts with the human body in many ways. Research studies carried out in the last few decades have not yet resolved the issue of the effect of this factor on the human body and many questions are left without an unequivocal answer. Various biological and health-related effects have not been fully recognized. Thus further studies in this area are justified.
OBJECTIVES: A comparison of changes within catalase enzymatic activity and malondialdehyde concentration arising under the influence of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by car electronics, equipment used in physiotherapy and LCD monitors.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The suspension of human blood platelets at a concentration of 1 × 109/0.001 dm 3, obtained from whole blood by manual apheresis, was the study material. Blood platelets were exposed to an electromagnetic field for 30 min in a laboratory stand designed for the reconstruction of the electromagnetic radiation generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors. The changes in catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration were investigated after the exposure and compared to the control values (unexposed material).
RESULTS: An increase in catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration was observed after 30 min exposure of platelets to EMF regardless of the radiation source. The most significant changes determining the degree of oxidative stress were observed after exposure to the EMF generated by car electronics.
CONCLUSIONS: The low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors may be a cause of oxidative stress in the human body and may lead to free radical diseases.
To expose the suspension to radiation, a special device was built in laboratory conditions, reconstructing the parameters of the electromagnetic field generated by car electronics (1 kHz, 0.5 mT), physiotherapy equipment (50 Hz, 10 mT) and LCD monitors (1 kHz, 220 V/m). When electromagnetic radiation of a low frequency is tested, the electrical and magnetic components should be investigated independently. In the presented studies on the sources of the elektromagnetic field of LCD monitors, electric component was considered, as its parameters appeared to be of significance as regards their effect on the human body. The electromagnetic field emitted by car electronics and physiotherapy equipment was characterized by the magnetic component ...
Oxidative stress reflects pro-oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. The uncontrolled increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) developing under the influence of various external factors, among others electromagnetic radiation , also leads to the
process of cell membrane lipid peroxidation. It is a process of oxidation of phospholipids made up of unsaturated fatty acids which leads to excessive synthesis of lipid peroxides and to the transformation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to biologically
The end products of lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde) cause disturbances of cellular membrane structures, their depolarization and loss of integrity, and consequently cause cell death. Inhibition of the activity of many enzymes, due to the activity of aldehydes, leads, among others, to the inhibition of DNA replication, transcription, DNA strand breaks and cell death . MDA reacting with biomolecules building the cellular structure demonstrates its mutagenic and cytostatic properties . The amount of MDA in systemic fluid may be an indicator of the occurrence of pathological processes .
In the study, results were obtained indicating that the highest increase of malondialdehyde (at 77%) compared to the initial values resulted from 30-min exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by car electronics (induction 0.5 mT, frequency
1 kHz). However, the radiation emitted by physiotherapy equipment (induction 10 mT, frequency 50 Hz) also caused a great increase of malondialdehyde concentration – by 75%. The least changes were noted in the investigations concerning LCD monitors – by 25%.
Taking into account the numerous pathological implications of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress reactions and the fact that we live surrounded by electromagnetic radiation, it seems to be justified to carry out further studies in this field. The results of these experiments may be helpful in the determination of standards and principles adequate to the risks that develop after exposure to EMF and also may help in the introduction of appropriate prophylaxis.
The authors concluded that catalase enzymatic activity (antioxidant defense proteins) increases significantly after 30-min exposure of human blood platelets to the EMF emitted by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors. The most significant changes were observed after exposure to radiation of induction 0.5 mT and frequency 1 kHz. The measurement of malondialdehyde concentration (a lipid membrane peroxidation marker) demonstrated its increase in relation
to the initial values after 30-min exposure of blood platelets to the electromagnetic radiation generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors. The most significant changes of the concentration were noticed after exposure to radiation of induction 0.5 mT and frequency 1 kHz. The conditions (electromagnetic radiation of low frequency) used in the experiment are the cause of the observed changes in the enzymatic activity of catalase and malondialdehyde concentration, which can be indirectly related to EMF radiation in some kinds of cars, physiotherapy equipment and monitors.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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