Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45 GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney
Kuybulu AE, Öktem F, Çiriş İM, Sutcu R, Örmeci AR, Çömlekçi S, Uz E. Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45 GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney. Ren Fail. 2016 Feb 24:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) with an internet frequency of 2.45 GHz for a long time.
Methods The study was conducted in three groups of rats which were pre-natal, post-natal. and sham exposed groups. Oxidative stress markers and histological evaluation of kidney tissues were studied.
Results Renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant (TOS) levels of pre-natal group were high and total antioxidant (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were low. Spot urine NAG/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in pre- and post-natal groups (p < 0.001). Tubular injury was detected in most of the specimens in post-natal groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed low-intensity staining with Bax in cortex, high-intensity staining with Bcl-2 in cortical and medullar areas of pre-natal group (p values, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, respectively) when compared with sham group. Bcl2/Bax staining intensity ratios of medullar and cortical area was higher in pre-natal group than sham group (p = 0.018, p = 0.011).
Conclusion Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney.
We used six rats in the exposure system in the same time (Figure 1). A 217 Hz pulse RF source (SET ELECO, Set Elektronik, Istanbul, Turkey) and its monopole antenna were used for the 2450 MHz experimental exposure. Using this equipment, 45.5 V/m electric field intensity could be obtained with 1 W of antenna power in the near-field region. However, antenna output power was limited to 0.8 W to obtain a realistic value of 0.1 W/kg of whole body SAR ... Whole body average SAR can be tuned to a value of 0.1 W/kg (exactly 0.143 W/kg).
Twelve 3-month-old female Wistar albino rats were mated with 12 male rats at the beginning of the study. Each rat was placed in a cage overnight with a male rat, and the first 24 h period following the mating procedure was designated as day 0 of pregnancy. All pregnant female rats were placed in one cage and randomly distributed among three groups: pre-natal, post-natal, and sham exposed (control). The ‘‘pre-natal group’’ was exposed to EMF in utero (mother rats were exposed to a 2.45 MHz EMF (0.1 W/kg, 1 h/day) during the time of pregnancy and then from 18 days of age (2.45 MHz, 0.1 W/kg, 1 h/day) till 12th week. The ‘‘post-natal group’’ was exposed to EMF (2.45 MHz, 0.1 W/kg, 1 h/day) from 18 days of age till 12th week. The third group was sham exposed. The mother rats of ‘‘post-natal’’ and ‘‘sham’’ groups were also sham-exposed. As the pups remained with their dams through the suckling period and could not be placed in separate cages, pre-natal and post-natal groups were exposed to EMF after 18 days of suckling. This time was also proper for gender assignment. At 18 days of age, eight male rats from each group (two from each rat) were randomly selected and isolated. The male pups from the pre-natal and post-natal groups continued to be exposed to 2.45 GHz EMF, SAR 0.1 W/kg for 1 h/day. Male pups selected from the sham exposed were sham-exposed until 12th week.
In our study, both pre-natal and post-natal exposure to EMF at 2.45 GHz resulted in high levels of 24-hour urinary NAG in rats. In addition, examination of sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed that pre-natal EMF exposure caused tubular damage.
Recent Research on WiFi Effects
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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