Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Threatened Miscarriage: A Case-Control Study
|Tan TC1,4*, Neo GH1, Malhotra R2,3, Allen JC2, Lie D1 and Østbye T2,3|
|1Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore|
|2Programme in Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore|
|3Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, Singapore|
|4Department of O & G. KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore|
|Corresponding Author :||Tan Thiam Chye|
KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital
100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore
Tel: +65 62934044
Fax: +65 62986343
|Received April 29, 2014; Accepted May 28, 2014; Published May 30, 2014|
|Citation: Tan TC, Neo GH, Malhotra R, Allen JC, Lie D, et al. (2014) Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Threatened Miscarriage: A Case-Control Study. JFIV Reprod Med Genet 2:123. doi: 10.4172/jfiv.1000123|
|Copyright: © 2014 Tan TC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro
|Background: Threatened miscarriage occurs in 20% of pregnancies. We conducted a case-control study to assess the association between maternal lifestyle factors and risk of threatened miscarriage.|
Methods: Cases were 154 women presenting with threatened miscarriage in the 5th to 10th weeks of gestation; controls were 264 women without threatened miscarriage seen in antenatal clinic in the 5th to 10th week of pregnancy. Lifestyle variables were: current and past cigarette smoking, current second-hand cigarette smoke exposure, computer and mobile-phone use, perceived stress, past contraceptive use, past menstrual regularity and consumption of fish oils, caffeine and alcohol. Logistic regression was performed.
Results: In multivariate analysis, we found a positive association of threatened miscarriage with second-hand smoke exposure (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.32–6.48), computer usage (>4 hours/day) (OR 6.03, 95% CI 2.82–12.88), mobile-phone usage (>1 hour/day) (OR 2.94 95% CI 1.32–6.53) and caffeine consumption (OR 2.95 95% CI 1.57–5.57). Any fish oil consumption was associated with reduced risk of threatened miscarriage (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.09–0.42).
Conclusions: Prolonged mobile phone and computer use and fish oil supplementation are potential novel correlates of threatened miscarriage that deserve further study.