The effect of prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on calcineurin and bone development in rats
Erkut A, Tumkaya L, Balik MS, Kalkan Y, Guvercin Y, Yilmaz A, Yuce S, Cure E, Sehitoglu I. The effect of prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on calcineurin and bone development in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2016 Feb;31(2):74-83.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exposure to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on bone development during the prenatal period in rats.
METHODS: Pregnant rats in the experimental group were exposed to radiation for six, 12, and 24 hours daily for 20 days. No radiation was given to the pregnant rats in the control group. We distributed the newborn rats into four groups according to prenatal EMF exposure as follows: Group 1 was not exposed to EMF; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to EMF for six, 12, and 24 hours a day, respectively. The rats were evaluated at the end of the 60th day following birth.
RESULTS: Increasing the duration of EMF exposure during the prenatal period resulted in a significant reduction of resting cartilage levels and a significant increase in the number of apoptotic chondrocytes and myocytes. There was also a reduction in calcineurin activities in both bone and muscle tissues. We observed that the development of the femur, tibia, and ulna were negatively affected, especially with a daily EMF exposure of 24 hours.
CONCLUSION: Bone and muscle tissue development was negatively affected due to prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field.
The carrier frequency of the device was managed to be 1800 MHz, the modulation frequency was 217 Hz with a pulse width of 577 µsec and a maximum power of 2 W. Female rats delivered 120 pups, 40 of these newborn rats were males. The randomly selected groups were divided into Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. The groups were designed as follows: Group 1 contained the newborn male rats (n = 10) from females in the control group that were not exposed to EMF during pregnancy; Group 2 contained newborn male rats (n = 10) from females exposed to 6 hours of daily EMF during pregnancy; Group 3 contained newborn male rats (n = 10) from females exposed to 12 hours of daily EMF during pregnancy; and Group 4 contained newborn male rats (n = 10) from females exposed to 24 hours of daily microwave radiation during pregnancy.
Fetal chondrocytes of bone tissue and myocytes of muscle tissue are more susceptible to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure during the prenatal period. EMF may lead to the formation of oxygen radicals by a direct toxic effect, and increase apoptosis and excessive osteoblast inhibition by suppressing CN. EMF exposure during the prenatal period may lead to obvious damage to muscle, bone, and cartilage tissues.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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