The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies and oxidative stress
Dasdag S, Akdag MZ. The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies and oxidative stress. J Chem Neuroanat. 2015 Sep 12. pii: S0891-0618(15)00069-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.09.
Wireless communication such as cellular telephones and other types of handheld phones working with frequencies of 900MHz, 1800MHz, 2100MHz, 2450MHz have been increasing rapidly. Therefore, public opinion concern about the potential human health hazards of short and long-term effect of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Oxidative stress is a biochemical condition, which is defined by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the anti-oxidative defense. In this review, we evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies carried out on the relation between RF emitted from mobile phones and oxidative stress. The results of the studies we reviewed here indicated that mobile phones and similar equipment or radars can be thought as a factor, which cause oxidative stress. Even some of them claimed that oxidative stress originated from radiofrequencies can be resulted with DNA damage. For this reason one of the points to think on is relation between mobile phones and oxidative stress. However, more performance is necessary especially on human exposure studies.
... Overwhelming majority of the studies discussed in this review (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4) indicates that mobile phones or similar equipment that emit radiofrequency radiation have a potential to increase oxidative stress resulting DNA damage. The damage, which also called as oxidative DNA damage may play an important role in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and aging. It should not forget that this outcome is vital for the living beings or entities that created them. Meanwhile, it should be remembered that standardization of methodology of the studies far from each other mostly. For instance some authors used mobile phones directly that is far from standard exposure condition. Additionally, SAR values of some studies are not available or measurement methods are controversial. Therefore, the authors have to pay more attention to these details including the remarks recommended by Belyaev (2010) when designed further performances. However, the greatest responsibility is belonging to the editors who do not care about these details or cannot spend enough time to find the right referees.
Four human studies are present and third of them pointing oxidative effects of radiofrequencies (Khalil et al., 2014, Moustafa et al., 2001, Peraica et al., 2008 and Garaj-Vrhovac et al., 2011). The results of human study are very remarkable to evaluate the oxidative effects of radiofrequencies emitted by different mobile or fixed equipment. Therefore, regulations on these fields should be reconsidered. Another interesting result of human studies performed on RF emitted from mobile phones is efficiency of frequencies in terms of oxidative stress. Because it seems that 900 MHz is more effective than 1800 MHz in terms of oxidative stress.
We can summarize the results of the articles presented here under some headings.
1 Overwhelming of the studies reviewed here indicated that mobile phones or similar wireless equipment increase the oxidative stress.
2 Some of the researchers definitely believe that mobile phones cause oxidative damage and therefore they investigated radio-protective effects of some drugs such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, melatonin, caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, garlic.
3 Some of the authors believe that mobile phones cause DNA damage by means of increasing of oxidative stress.
4 A few of the studies claimed that mobile phones have not any oxidative effects.
5 Human studies are very informative and their results are quite disturbing. However, numbers of the studies are very limited and further studies should be performed as soon as possible.
6 Regulation on working conditions of the radar technicians should be reconsidered in terms of occupational oxidative stress originated from radars.
In conclusion, most of the articles reported that mobile phones and similar equipment or radars can be thought as a factor, which cause oxidative stress. Some of the authors claimed that oxidative stress originated from radiofrequencies can be resulted with DNA damage. However, maximum attention should be paid methodology, exposure setup and other exposure parameters when new studies programed. More human exposure studies are necessary to clarify the topic.
Yakymenko et al (2015) Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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