THE LINK BETWEEN RADIOFREQUENCIES EMITTED FROM WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES AND OXIDATIVE STRESS
Dasdag S, Akdag MZ. THE LINK BETWEEN RADIOFREQUENCIES EMITTED FROM WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES AND OXIDATIVE STRESS. J Chem Neuroanat. 2015 Sep 11. pii: S0891-0618(15)00069-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.09.
Wireless communication such as cellular telephones and other types of handheld phones working with frequencies of 900MHz, 1800MHz, 2100MHz, 2450MHz have been increasing rapidly. Therefore, public opinion concern about the potential human health hazards of short and long-term effect of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Oxidative stress is a biochemical condition, which is defined by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the anti-oxidative defense. In this review, we evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies carried out on the relation between RF emitted from mobile phones and oxidative stress. The results of the studies we reviewed here indicated that mobile phones and similar equipment or radars can be thought as a factor, which cause oxidative stress. Even some of them claimed that oxidative stress originated from radiofrequencies can be resulted with DNA damage. For this reason one of the points to think on is relation between mobile phones and oxidative stress. However, more performance is necessary especially on human exposure studies.
Brain was believed to be the most affected organ simply because head is exposed to radiofrequencies (RF) due to mobile phone usage. Therefore, at the beginning, studies mainly focused on the relation between RF emitted from mobile phones and its adverse health effects especially brain tumors (Dasdag et al., 2008a, Dasdag et al., 2009, Dasdag et al., 2012 and Hardel et al., 1999). Afterwards, studies on mobile phone exposure focused on other organs especially on reproductive organs (Celik et al., 2012 and Nisbet et al., 2012) The results of these studies in this field are still contradictive (Agarwal et al., 2011, Akdag et al., 1999 and Dasdag et al., 1999; 2003; Lee et al., 2012). Parallel to mobile phone studies, recently studies have been undertaken to focus on health hazards of other wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, which also emits RF (Avendano et al., 2012, Atasoy et al., 2013 and Saygin et al., 2011). It is obvious that RF emitted from Wi-Fi equipment affect entire body. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate sensitive organs during Wi-Fi exposure because of the whole body exposure. Thus, large scale and long duration studies are necessary to answer this question. As it is evident from other radiation types, some of the radiosensitive organs are brain, thyroid and reproductive organs etc. However, one of the main mechanisms lying under biohazard of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may probably be oxidative stress which largely results from free radical formation.
- • Overwhelming of the studies reviewed here indicated that mobile phones or similar wireless equipment increase the oxidative stress.
- • Some of the researchers definitely believe that mobile phones cause oxidative damage and therefore they investigated radio-protective effects of some drugs such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, melatonin, caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, garlic etc.
- • Some of the authors believe that mobile phones cause DNA damage by means of increasing of oxidative stress.
- • A few of the studies claimed that mobile phones have not any oxidative effects.
- • Human studies are very informative and their results are quite disturbing. However, numbers of the studies are very limited and further studies should be performed as soon as possible.
- • Regulation on working conditions of the radar technicians should be reconsidered in terms of occupational oxidative stress originated from radars.
Igor Yakymenko, Olexandr Tsybulin, Evgeniy Sidorik, Diane Henshel, Olga Kyrylenko, and Sergiy Kyrylenko, Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on July 7, 2015. doi:10.3109/15368378.2015.
AbstractThis review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells.
Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies.
In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.
The analysis of modern data on biological effects of lowi-ntensity RFR leads to a firm conclusion that this physical agent is a powerful oxidative stressor for living cell. The oxidative efficiency of RFR can be mediated via changes in activities of key ROS-generating systems, including mitochondria and non-phagocytic NADH oxidases, via direct effects on water molecules, and via induction of conformation changes in biologically important macromolecules. In turn, a broad biological potential of ROS and other free radicals, including both their mutagenic effects and their signaling regulatory potential, makes RFR a potentially hazardous factor for human health. We suggest minimizing the intensity and time of RFR exposures, and taking a precautionary approach towards wireless technologies in everyday human life.
Open Access Review Paper: http://www.tandfonline.com/
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
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