Saturday, March 31, 2012

The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields

The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields

Problems and solutions
Andrew Goldsworthy
 March 2012

Vanderbilt Expert Weighs in on New CDC Findings for Autism Prevalence

Vanderbilt Expert Weighs in on New CDC Findings for Autism Prevalence

Released:3/29/2012 12:00 PM EDT
Source:Vanderbilt University
Expert Available

Newswise — The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced today that the prevalence of children in the United States with autism has increased. The newly-released statistics suggest one in 88 children have an Autism Spectrum Disorder, up from one in 110 released in 2009.
Zachary Warren, Ph.D., director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center’s Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Vanderbilt University, says effective early identification and treatment of autism is a public health emergency.

“The new CDC data is the best evidence we have to date that autism is a very common disorder. While recent estimates have varied, we have always known the individual, familial, educational and societal costs that go along with autism are tremendous,” Warren said. “We are now seeing autism in more than 1 percent of the population, which highlights how challenging it will be for systems of care to meet service needs.”

Most educational and medical systems do not have the resources capable of meeting the comprehensive needs of individuals with autism and their families across the lifespan, Warren added.
Programs aimed at enhancing early identification of autism are often thought to be a critical first step in autism treatment, as intervention during early childhood may result in tremendous differences over time. Given the prevalence rates, many medical centers have struggled to meet needs for such identification, with waits of six to 12 months.

Through a combination of clinical programs, training models, research projects and community partnerships, Vanderbilt has created a system of care designed to minimize the distress that families must endure when waiting to be evaluated for autism.

“We at Vanderbilt have decided that early identification is a priority, and we’ve worked very hard to achieve the goal of shortened waits for families and providers,” Warren said. “When a family or a pediatrician calls Vanderbilt for an autism evaluation for a young child, my hope is that we will continually be able to offer families what most medical centers cannot – an appointment.”

“As a parent I cannot fathom how stressful it would be to be told that your child may have autism, and ‘we’ll let you know the answer to that question in six to 12 months.’ Given the public health implications of the disorder, what we should be asking is ‘would you like to be seen this week or next.’”

As recently as the 1970s, autism was believed to affect just one in 2,000 children. This newly released data is based off children born in 2000 and means autism possibly affects roughly 1 million U.S. children and teens.

Boys with autism outnumber girls 5-to-1, according to the CDC report, which estimates that 1 in 54 boys in the United States have autism.

Autism is so common, Warren says, that service systems can’t afford to wait.

“Autism shouldn’t be a ‘Scarlett Letter A’ or something that our community is uncomfortable discussing,” Warren said. “This is a disorder you need to know about if you are a community pediatrician, educator or parent. We need to be thinking about effective ways to talk about the disorder in terms of risk and identification and we also really need to think about realistic systems of care for one percent of our population.”

The Vanderbilt Kennedy Center’s Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders examines the causes and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders with current research programs including:

• the diagnosis of autism
• identification of genetic and core behavioral features of autism
• the nature and treatment of sleep disturbance in children with autism
• early intervention with children at risk for autism
• development of siblings of children with autism
• understanding the health and well-being of parents with children with autism

“Our mission is to facilitate discoveries and best practices that make positive differences in the lives of persons with developmental disabilities and their families,” said Elisabeth Dykens, Ph.D., director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center. “We do this by pursuing science with creativity and purpose, disseminating cutting-edge information to families, communities and national leaders and translating knowledge into effective service and practice.”

Autism on the rise in Canada, U.S.: studies

Recent reports say there has been an alarming increase of autism in individuals across North America.
Recent reports say there has been an alarming increase of autism in individuals across North America.

Date: Thu. Mar. 29 2012 9:31 PM ET

The number of children with autism has increased significantly in at least three Canadian provinces and across the U.S. because of wider screening and improved diagnosis, according to new reports.
But some experts caution that environmental factors could also be influencing autism rates.
A report from the National Epidemiologic Database for the Study of Autism in Canada, released this week, found increases in autism diagnoses in Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador and southeastern Ontario.

The increases range from 39 to 204 per cent, depending on the region and age group.
Autism Canada spokesperson Laurie Mawlam said she is not surprised by the increase.

"I think we have a public health problem and I think it needs a lot of attention, and until we understand what is going on I am not optimistic that the numbers get better," she said.

In the U.S., about one in 88 children have the disorder, up from the previous estimate of one in 110, says a report released Thursday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.
The CDC found that actual cases of autism are twice the number reported five years ago. It's now believed one million children and teens in the U.S. have some form of the condition, a developmental disability characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication and repetitive behaviours.

NEDSAC researchers compared data between 2003 and 2010 in P.E.I. and southeastern Ontario, and between 2003 and 2008 in Newfoundland.

Among NEDSAC's findings:
• The increase in autism diagnoses was higher among boys in Newfoundland
• The prevalence of autism among children between the ages of two and four appears to be leveling off in southeastern Ontario
• Roughly half of children with autism were not diagnosed until after their fifth birthday
• Diagnosing kids at an earlier age does not seem to explain the increasing autism rates

In an email to CTV News, report author Helene Ouellette-Kuntz, a Queen's University professor, said she suspects "up to 2/3 of the increase may be due to increased awareness and changes in diagnostic practices."

But additional research suggests that even after accounting for these factors, "a third of the observed increase in the prevalence of autistic disorder between 1996 and 2004 could not be explained by increased diagnosis alone."

Researchers point out that autism rates are highly variable across regions in Canada, much like in the United States.

But the growing number of autism cases is raising concerns.

"There has been a lot of evidence over the last 10 to 15 years that autism is increasing at a very large rate that cannot be accounted for by changing diagnostic opinions or increased surveillance," University of Western Ontario autism researcher, Dr. Derrick MacFabe, told CTV News.

"We think that something is happening environmentally that is triggering this increase in susceptible individuals," he said.

In their search for answers, MacFabe said researchers have looked at pesticides and various chemicals, as well as increasing antibiotic use. There is a belief that autism could be triggered by the over-use of antibiotics, which can alter bacteria found in human digestive systems.

"A lot of these children have had experiences of long-term antibiotic use which we think is changing the bacteria of their guts - favouring bacteria that may be triggering autism," said MacFabe.

In a statement, CDC researcher Dr. Coleen Boyle said the centre is "not quite sure" why autism rates have spiked.

The CDC study is considered the most comprehensive U.S. investigation of autism prevalence to date.

Health and school records were checked to determine how common autism was in the selected location in each state and its prevalence overall.

Researchers looked at health and school data from 2008 in areas in 14 states targeted specifically at children who were eight years old to determine how common autism was and its prevalence overall.
A 2002 study estimated that about one in 150 children that age had autism. But 2006 data revised that figure to about one in 110 until the most recent statistics were released.

Autism disorders are almost five times more common among boys than girls, with one in 54 boys identified with it in the studies used to formulate the report.

The number of children identified with the disorders ranged from one in 210 in Alabama to one in 47 in Utah. The largest increases were among Hispanic and black children.

"One thing the data tells us with certainty - there are many children and families who need help," said CDC director Dr. Thomas Frieden in the same release, a message echoed by Canadian advocates.

"I actually don't want think there is enough support out there across the country and across the lifespan of individuals with autism I think it is a dollars and sense issue. It is not cheap to support people with autism but it is crucial that we do it," said Mawlam.

In a news release Thursday, Autism Canada called for more studies and immediate government action to help families with autistic children, saying many of them can't afford basic speech and cognitive therapies.

Canadian schools are also "overwhelmed" by the increasing autism rates and more funding is needed for special education programs, the organization said.

"Autism is a public health emergency and governments must work together and react immediately," the advocacy group said in a statement. "A national autism strategy is long overdue."

Experts say the most important thing for parents to do is to act quickly whenever there's a concern about a child's development.

Early identification and intervention in autism disorder cases can significantly improve a child's life, doctors say.

With a report from CTV's medical specialist Avis Favaro and producer Elizabeth St. Philip

Read more:

Can Cell Phones Cause Autism?

Can Cell Phones Cause Autism?

Autistic baby holding cell phoneAutism has increased sixty-fold since the late 1970s. But autism rates really took off during the past 10 years. The scientific community is not really sure what causes autism. Is it genetic? Environmental? Do vaccines which contain mercury contribute? No one seems to know for sure.
So what is the implication of this? Well with no real understanding of what causes autism, scientists and doctors are at a loss for how to prevent it…and how to cure it. Now there is evidence that wireless devices…cell phones, WI-FI devices, cellular towers…all may be having an adverse effect.
Research conducted in Australia studied children with autism over a five year period. The study looked at the effect EMR or electromagnetic radiation has on kids. The study, published in the Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine found a correlation to heavy metal concentrations, exposure to EMR and autism.

More kids are being exposed to EMR

The study noted the increase in the rate of growth of autism diagnoses parallel the growth in the use of cell phones and the increase in the amount of EMR that children are exposed to. And so many children have been exposed to increasing amounts of electromechanical radiation (EMR) in the past decade. After all, who doesn't have a wireless network for your computers in your house along with several cell phones? And even if you don’t use a cell phone, there are cell towers everywhere which allow those with a phone to connect wirelessly.
The researchers believe that the dramatic increase in the rate of autism must have an environmental component. And their research points to a possible cause. Researchers believe that the increase in exposure to EMR from all of these wireless devices in combination with environmental and genetic factors is creating the perfect storm.

Heavy Metals Concentrations were Studied

The researchers studied the concentration of heavy metals in the children. Tests were done to assess this level of heavy metals through the three distinct excretion pathways of urine, skin and feces. The researchers believe that the expose to cell phones and other wireless devices cause cells to trap heavy metals which accelerate the onset of autistic symptoms. Do radio waves from cell phones and other wireless devices make children's expose to heavy metals and vaccines more dangerous than they would typically be? Well these researchers believe that this may be the case.

As a parent what can you do?

We really can't know for sure the extent that exposure to EMR from cell phones or other wireless devices contribute to the onset of autism. But parents may want to think twice before exposing their newborns or toddlers to cell phones. Don't put your cell phone up to your baby's mouth so that grandma can hear your toddler babbling. Perhaps you want to avoid using your cell phone around small children.
It may be tempting to hold your baby while chatting with a friend. But use your wire-line phone in the house rather than your cell phone. It may be a little inconvenient, but perhaps an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
While some may see this as extreme, until we know what truly causes autism, these researchers advice caution.
For more information on how you can help and protect your child read Can Autism Be Prevented? Research Suggests Parents Can Play a Pivotal Role

‘Cellphone radiation unsafe for infants’

‘Cellphone radiation unsafe for infants’

Express news service : Chandigarh, Thu Mar 29 2012, 01:50 hrs
Radiation from cellphones and the thermal energy it produces can hamper the developing organs of infants. Addressing a conference organised here by the Cellular Operator Association of India (COAI) and Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India on Wednesday, GMCH-32 Professor & Head of Radio Diagnosis Dr Suman Koccha said, “There is no direct correlation between mobile phone radiation and carcinogenesis or any scientific evidence of mobile phone radiation adversely affecting DNA or causing any body cell damages. However, with children and especially infants, one has to be a little extra cautious. If one is using a cellphone for a long time while holding an infant, there can be physiological changes to the brain or bones of the baby or yet immature tissues in young children could be at a potential risk.”

“More mutli-centre cohort studies should be done to safely say that a mobile phone is safe or otherwise for infants”, she added. The World Health Organisation (WHO) will be conducting a formal risk assessment of all studied health outcomes from radio fields frequency exposure by the end of this year.

The workshop on Radiation from Mobile Towers: Myths vs Reality was organised to clear doubts related to health hazards from electro magnetic field radiation.

March 2012 - Science Update

March 2012 - Science Update


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The following is a quick summary of another nineteen papers that have come out over the last few months related to effects of electromagnetic radiation.

1. PCammaerts MC et al, (January 2012)
GSM 900 MHz radiation inhibits ants' association between food sites and encountered cues,
Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The kinetics of the acquisition and loss of the use of olfactory and visual cues were previously obtained in six experimental colonies of the ant Myrmica sabuleti meinert 1861, under normal conditions. In the present work, the same experiments were conducted on six other naive identical colonies of M. sabuleti, under electromagnetic radiation similar to those surrounding GSM and communication masts. In this situation, no association between food and either olfactory or visual cues occurred. After a recovery period, the ants were able to make such an association but never reached the expected score. Such ants having acquired a weaker olfactory or visual score and still undergoing olfactory or visual training were again submitted to electromagnetic waves. Not only did they lose all that they had memorized, but also they lost it in a few hours instead of in a few days (as under normal conditions when no longer trained). They kept no visual memory at all (instead of keeping 10% of it as they normally do). The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation was greater on the visual memory than on the olfactory one. These communication waves may have such a disastrous impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or visual memory, i.e., on bees.

2. -Stevens RG et al, (March 2012)
Does Electric Light Stimulate Cancer Development in Children?,
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
Incidence of cancer in children has increased in recent decades, and known risk factors can account for only a small minority of cases. Gestation and early childhood are particularly vulnerable periods in human development and an important aspect of development is in circadian rhythmicity. Emerging evidence implicates the molecular circadian mechanism in a vast array of other physiologic functions including metabolism, DNA damage response and cell-cycle regulation. Electric light exposure at night can disrupt circadian rhythms and, thereby, many other physiologic processes that are under circadian control. On this basis, it is proposed that ill-timed electric light exposure to pregnant women, to neonates, infants, and small children may increase cancer risk in those children. There are practical implications and interventions that accrue from this idea should it later be confirmed to be true.

3. NLittle MP et al, (March 2012)
Mobile phone use and glioma risk: comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence trends in the United States,
BMJ. 2012 Mar 8;344:e1147. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e1147 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
In view of mobile phone exposure being classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), we determined the compatibility of two recent reports of glioma risk (forming the basis of the IARC's classification) with observed incidence trends in the United States. Comparison of observed rates with projected rates of glioma incidence for 1997-2008. We estimated projected rates by combining relative risks reported in the 2010 Interphone study and a 2011 Swedish study by Hardell and colleagues with rates adjusted for age, registry, and sex; data for mobile phone use; and various latency periods. US population based data for glioma incidence in 1992-2008, from 12 registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programme (Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose-Monterey, Seattle, rural Georgia, Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, and Utah). Data for 24-813 non-Hispanic white people diagnosed with glioma at age 18 years or older. Age specific incidence rates of glioma remained generally constant in 1992-2008 (-0.02% change per year, 95% confidence interval -0.28% to 0.25%), a period coinciding with a substantial increase in mobile phone use from close to 0% to almost 100% of the US population. If phone use was associated with glioma risk, we expected glioma incidence rates to be higher than those observed, even with a latency period of 10 years and low relative risks (1.5). Based on relative risks of glioma by tumour latency and cumulative hours of phone use in the Swedish study, predicted rates should have been at least 40% higher than observed rates in 2008. However, predicted glioma rates based on the small proportion of highly exposed people in the Interphone study could be consistent with the observed data. Results remained valid if we used either non-regular users or low users of mobile phones as the baseline category, and if we constrained relative risks to be more than 1. Raised risks of glioma with mobile phone use, as reported by one (Swedish) study forming the basis of the IARC's re-evaluation of mobile phone exposure, are not consistent with observed incidence trends in US population data, although the US data could be consistent with the modest excess risks in the Interphone study.

4. PAldad TS et al, (March 2012)
Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice,
Sci Rep. 2012;2:312. Epub 2012 Mar 15 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
Neurobehavioral disorders are increasingly prevalent in children, however their etiology is not well understood. An association between prenatal cellular telephone use and hyperactivity in children has been postulated, yet the direct effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on neurodevelopment remain unknown. Here we used a mouse model to demonstrate that in-utero radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephones does affect adult behavior. Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy.

5. PBellieni CV et al, (March 2012)
Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?,
 Early Hum Dev. 2012 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
During permanence in most incubators, newborns are very close to the electric engine, which represents a source of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Previous studies demonstrated a decrease in melatonin production in adults and animals exposed to EMF. To assess melatonin production in a group of newborns exposed to EMF, and to evaluate whether removing the babies from the source of MF can affect melatonin production. We have recruited 28 babies (study group), who had spent at least 48h in incubator where we had previously assessed the presence of significant EMF. We have measured their mean 6-hydroxy-melatonin-sulfate (6OHMS) urine excretion at the end of their permanence in the incubators, and compared it with their mean 6OHMS excretion after having been put in cribs, where EMF are below the detectable limit (< 0.1mG). We have also measured urine 6OHMS twice, with an interval of 48h, in a control group of 27 babies who were not exposed to EMF during both samples. Mean 6OHMS/cr values were respectively 5.34±4.6 and 7.68±5.1ng/mg (p=0.026) when babies were exposed to EMF in incubators, and after having been put in the crib. In the control group, mean 6OHMS/cr values in the first and in the second sample were respectively 5.91±5.41 vs 6.17±3.94ng/mg (p=0.679). The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data.

6. NSoderqvist F et al, (March 2012)
Use of wireless phones and the risk of salivary gland tumours: a case-control study,
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The last decades of increasing use of wireless phones, including mobile as well as cordless desktop phones, have led to concerns about the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Among the most exposed areas of the body when the phone is used for talking are the salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland, located in front of the ear. The objective of this case-control study was to assess whether the use of wireless phones is associated with an increased risk of tumour at this site. Sixty-nine patients with salivary gland tumours (63 with a parotid gland tumour) and 262 randomly recruited controls were included. Unconditional logistic regression - adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic index - was used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The use of wireless phones was not associated with an overall increased risk of salivary gland tumours, odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.5. Neither was there an increased risk for the different phone types when calculated separately nor was there an increased risk for different latencies or when cumulative use was divided into three groups (1-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000 h). The overall results were similar for the risk of parotid gland tumours. In conclusion, our data add to the evidence against there being an increased risk for parotid gland tumours associated with light-to-moderate use of wireless phones and for less than 10 years of use but offers little information on risk related to more prolonged and/or heavy use.The last decades of increasing use of wireless phones, including mobile as well as cordless desktop phones, have led to concerns about the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Among the most exposed areas of the body when the phone is used for talking are the salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland, located in front of the ear. The objective of this case-control study was to assess whether the use of wireless phones is associated with an increased risk of tumour at this site. Sixty-nine patients with salivary gland tumours (63 with a parotid gland tumour) and 262 randomly recruited controls were included. Unconditional logistic regression - adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic index - was used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The use of wireless phones was not associated with an overall increased risk of salivary gland tumours, odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.5. Neither was there an increased risk for the different phone types when calculated separately nor was there an increased risk for different latencies or when cumulative use was divided into three groups (1-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000 h). The overall results were similar for the risk of parotid gland tumours. In conclusion, our data add to the evidence against there being an increased risk for parotid gland tumours associated with light-to-moderate use of wireless phones and for less than 10 years of use but offers little information on risk related to more prolonged and/or heavy use.

7. PCiejka E et al, (December 2011)
Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on oxidative balance in brain of rats
 J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;62(6):657-61 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may result in oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation with an ultimate effect on a number of systemic disturbances and cell death. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of ELF-MF parameters most frequently used in magnetotherapy on reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in brain tissue of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to this field. The research material included adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3-4 months. The animals were divided into 3 groups: I - control (shame) group; II - exposed to the following parameters of the magnetic field: 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day, 10 days; III - exposed to the ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 60 min/day, 10 days. The selected parameters of oxidative stress: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), total free sulphydryl groups (-SH groups) and protein in brain homogenates were measured after the exposure of rats to the magnetic field. ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day for 10 days caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and insignificant increase in H(2)O(2) and free -SH groups. The same ELF-MF parameters but applied for 60 min/day caused a significant increase in free -SH groups and protein concentration in the brain homogenates indicating the adaptive mechanism. The study has shown that ELF-MF applied for 30 min/day for 10 days can affect free radical generation in the brain. Prolongation of the exposure to ELF-MF (60/min/day) caused adaptation to this field. The effect of ELF-MF irradiation on oxidative stress parameters depends on the time of animal exposure to magnetic field.

8. NPoulletier de Gannes F et al, (February 2012)
Effect of In Utero Wi-Fi Exposure on the Pre- and Postnatal Development of Rats,
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2012 Feb 6. doi: 10.1002/bdrb.20346. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The increase in exposure to the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) wireless communication signal has raised public health concerns especially for young people. Animal studies looking at the effects of early life and prenatal exposure to this source of electromagnetic fields, in the radiofrequency (RF) range, on development and behavior have been considered as high priority research needs by the World Health Organization. For the first time, our study assessed the effects of in utero exposure to a 2450 MHz Wi-Fi signal (2 hr/day, 6 days/week for 18 days) on pregnant rats and their pups. Three levels in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate were used: 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg. The prenatal study on fetuses delivered by caesarean (P20) concerned five females/group. The dams and their offspring were observed for 28 days after delivery (15 females/group). For all test conditions, no abnormalities were noted in the pregnant rats and no significant signs of toxicity were observed in the pre- and postnatal development of the pups, even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. In the present study, no teratogenic effect of repeated exposures to the Wi-Fi wireless communication signal was demonstrated even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. The results from this screening study aimed at investigating Wi-Fi effects, strengthen the previous conclusions that teratology and development studies have not detected any noxious effects of exposures to mobile telephony-related RF fields at exposure levels below standard limits.

9. PTrivino Pardo JC et al, (March 2012)
Microwave electromagnetic field regulates gene expression in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line exposed to 900 MHz,
Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Mar;31(1):1-18 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in our society, and concerns have been expressed regarding possible adverse effects of these exposures. Research on Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been performed for more than two decades, and the methodology and quality of studies have improved over time. Studies have consistently shown increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with ELF magnetic fields. There are still inadequate data for other outcomes. More recently, focus has shifted toward Radio Frequencies (RF) exposures from mobile telephony. There are no persuasive data suggesting a health risk, but this research field is still immature with regard to the quantity and quality of available data. This technology is constantly changing and there is a need for continued research on this issue. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) could induce adverse health effects, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of 900 MHz MW-EMF generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell at short and long exposure times. We evaluated the effect of high-frequency EMF on gene expression and we identified functional pathways influenced by 900 MHz MW-EMF exposure.

10. NHuwiler SG et al, (February 2012)
Genome-wide transcription analysis of Escherichia coli in response to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields,
Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Feb 13. doi: 10.1002/bem.21709. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The widespread use of electricity raises the question of whether or not 50?Hz (power line frequency in Europe) magnetic fields (MFs) affect organisms. We investigated the transcription of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to extremely low-frequency (ELF) MFs. Fields generated by three signal types (sinusoidal continuous, sinusoidal intermittent, and power line intermittent; all at 50 Hz, 1 mT) were applied and gene expression was monitored at the transcript level using an Affymetrix whole-genome microarray. Bacterial cells were grown continuously in a chemostat (dilution rate D = 0.4 h(-1) ) fed with glucose-limited minimal medium and exposed to 50 Hz MFs with a homogenous flux density of 1 mT. For all three types of MFs investigated, neither bacterial growth (determined using optical density) nor culturable counts were affected. Likewise, no statistically significant change (fold-change > 2, P < 0.01) in the expression of 4,358 genes and 714 intergenic regions represented on the gene chip was detected after MF exposure for 2.5 h (1.4 generations) or 15 h (8.7 generations). Moreover, short-term exposure (8 min) to the sinusoidal continuous and power line intermittent signal neither affected bacterial growth nor showed evidence for reliable changes in transcription. In conclusion, our experiments did not indicate that the different tested MFs (50 Hz, 1 mT) affected the transcription of E. coli.

11. PJiang B et al, (2012)
Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields: Primary DNA Damage,
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32040. Epub 2012 Feb 28 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The phenomenon of adaptive response (AR) in animal and human cells exposed to ionizing radiation is well documented in scientific literature. We have examined whether such AR could be induced in mice exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF) used for wireless communications. Mice were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm(2) power density for 4 hours/day for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days and then subjected to an acute dose of 3 Gy γ-radiation. The primary DNA damage in the form of alkali labile base damage and single strand breaks in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The results indicated that the extent of damage in mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 1 day and then subjected to γ-radiation was similar and not significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. However, mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days showed progressively decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-exposure is capable of inducing AR and suggested that the pre-exposure for more than 4 hours for 1 day is necessary to elicit such AR.

12. PCalabro E et al, (February 2012)
Modulation of heat shock protein response in SH-SY5Y by mobile phone microwaves,
World J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 26;3(2):34-40 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
To investigate putative biological damage caused by GSM mobile phone frequencies by assessing electromagnetic fields during mobile phone working. Neuron-like cells, obtained by retinoic-acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, were exposed for 2 h and 4 h to microwaves at 1800 MHz frequency bands. Cell stress response was evaluated by MTT assay as well as changes in the heat shock protein expression (Hsp20, Hsp27 and Hsp70) and caspase-3 activity levels, as biomarkers of apoptotic pathway. Under our experimental conditions, neither cell viability nor Hsp27 expression nor caspase-3 activity was significantly changed. Interestingly, a significant decrease in Hsp20 expression was observed at both times of exposure, whereas Hsp70 levels were significantly increased only after 4 h exposure. The modulation of the expression of Hsps in neuronal cells can be an early response to radiofrequency microwaves.

13. PForoozandeh E et al, (March 2012)
Toxic effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on memory consolidation in male and female mice,
Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
In this study, the effect of exposure to an 8 mT, 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) on memory consolidation of adult male and female mice was studied. For this purpose male and female mice were randomly distributed among six groups (n = 10 in each group). Using passive avoidance task, despite its natural tendency, mouse learns to stay on a small platform to avoidant electric shock. Immediately after the learning session, laboratory animals in the experimental groups were placed in an 8 mT, 50 Hz sinusoidal EMF for 4 h. The second male and female groups were sham exposed (exposure device off) and the third groups were considered as the controls. Twenty-four hours after the learning session, the animals were placed on small platform again and step-down latency was measured as the memory consolidation index. Significant (p < 0.05) decreases were determined among groups in memory function and results showed that exposure to an 8 mT, 50 Hz EMF for 4 h has devastating effects on memory consolidation in male and female mice.

14. PTrosic I et al, (December 2011)
Effect of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation on the rats' brain, liver and kidney cells measured by comet assay,
Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1259-64 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The goal of study was to evaluate DNA damage in rat's renal, liver and brain cells after in vivo exposure to radiofrequency/microwave (Rf/Mw) radiation of cellular phone frequencies range. To determine DNA damage, a single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay was used. Wistar rats (male, 12 week old, approximate body weight 350 g) (N = 9) were exposed to the carrier frequency of 915 MHz with Global System Mobile signal modulation (GSM), power density of 2.4 W/m2, whole body average specific absorption rate SAR of 0.6 W/kg. The animals were irradiated for one hour/day, seven days/week during two weeks period. The exposure set-up was Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode Cell (GTEM--cell). Sham irradiated controls (N = 9) were apart of the study. The body temperature was measured before and after exposure. There were no differences in temperature in between control and treated animals. Comet assay parameters such as the tail length and tail intensity were evaluated. In comparison with tail length in controls (13.5 +/- 0.7 microm), the tail was slightly elongated in brain cells of irradiated animals (14.0 +/- 0.3 microm). The tail length obtained for liver (14.5 +/- 0.3 microm) and kidney (13.9 +/- 0.5 microm) homogenates notably differs in comparison with matched sham controls (13.6 +/- 0.3 microm) and (12.9 +/- 0.9 microm). Differences in tail intensity between control and exposed animals were not significant. The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage.

15. NAugner C et al, (March 2012)
Acute effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM mobile phones on subjective well-being and physiological reactions: A meta-analysis,
Sci Total Environ. 2012 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The potential effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by GSM mobile phones on subjective symptoms, well-being and physiological parameters have been investigated in many studies. However, the results have been ambiguous. The current meta-analysis aims to clarify whether RF-EMF have an influence on well-being in self-reported sensitive persons, as well as in non-sensitive people. A literature search revealed 17 studies including 1174 participants. The single effects for various subjective and objective outcomes were meta-analytically combined to yield a single population parameter. Dependant variables were subjective (e.g. headaches) and objective parameters (e.g. heart rate variability) of well-being. The results show no significant impact of short-term RF-EMF exposure on any parameter. Future research should focus on the possible effects of long-term exposure.

16. -Kim DW et al, (March 2012)
Assessment of daily exposure of endodontic personnel to extremely low frequency magnetic fields,
Int Endod J. 2012 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02030.x. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
To measure daily exposure levels to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) in endodontic clinics. In total, 10 subjects (five endodontic trainees, five hygienists) participated. Each volunteer wore a 60-Hz MF measurement device on the left upper arm during working hours. Measurements were taken continuously throughout the working day except at lunch time. Separate measurements were taken for specific items of equipment at several distances. The average MF exposure for the 10 personnel was 0.03 ± 0.04 micro-Tesla (µT) (range, 0.01-6.4 µT). The average MF exposure of endodontic personnel was lower than that of other hospital personnel according to the literature. Furthermore, all monitored exposure levels were well below the maximum acute exposure level, 500 µT, recommended by the International Committee on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection for the protection of workers against ELF MFs. However, relatively high levels of exposure occurred in an operating room and X-ray room, presumably as a result of the use of surgical equipment such as microscopes and monitors, various motors and power cables of X-ray machines with large current flows. The total average MF exposure level of 0.03 µT was lower than the typical background level at home. Although high levels of exposure were measured in an operating room and X-ray room, the MF exposure level to dental personnel was minimal during routine endodontic clinical work.

17. PTeepen JC, van Dijck JA, (March 2012)
Impact of high electromagnetic field levels on childhood leukaemia incidence,
Int J Cancer. 2012 Mar 21. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27542. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
The increasing exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concern, as increased exposure may result in an increased risk of childhood leukaemia (CL). Besides a short introduction of CL and EMF, this paper gives an evaluation of the evidence of a causal relation between EMF and CL by critically appraising the epidemiological and biological evidence. Also, the potential impact is estimated by the population attributable risk. The etiology of CL is largely unknown, but is probably multifactorial. EMF may be one of the environmental exposures involved. Three pooled analyses of case-control studies showed a 1.4-1.7 fold increased CL risk for extremely low frequency EMF (ELF-EMF) exposure levels above 0.3 microtesla. Several biases may have played a role in these studies, but are unlikely to fully explain the increased risk. For effects of radio frequency ELF evidence is lacking. None of the proposed biological mechanisms by which ELF-EMF might cause CL have been confirmed. The estimated overall population attributable risks was 1.9%, with the highest estimates in Northern America and Brazil (4.2% and 4.1% respectively). The potential impact of EMF exposure on public health is probably limited, although in some countries exposure might be relatively high and thus might have a more substantial impact. We recommend nationwide surveys in order to gain more insight into the contemporary exposure levels among children. Reducing exposure from power lines near densely populated areas and schools is advised. Future epidemiological studies should focus on limiting bias.

18. PVecchio F et al, (February 2012)
Mobile phone emission increases inter-hemispheric functional coupling of electroencephalographic alpha rhythms in epileptic patients,
Int J Psychophysiol. 2012 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print] [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
It has been reported that GSM electromagnetic fields (GSM-EMFs) of mobile phones modulate - after a prolonged exposure - inter-hemispheric synchronization of temporal and frontal resting electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in normal young and elderly subjects (Vecchio et al., 2007, 2010). Here we tested the hypothesis that this can be even more evident in epileptic patients, who typically suffer from abnormal mechanisms governing synchronization of rhythmic firing of cortical neurons. Eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in ten patients affected by focal epilepsy in real and sham exposure conditions. These data were compared with those obtained from 15 age-matched normal subjects of the previous reference studies. The GSM device was turned on (45min) in the "GSM" condition and was turned off (45min) in the other condition ("sham"). The mobile phone was always positioned on the left side in both patients and control subjects. Spectral coherence evaluated the inter-hemispheric synchronization of EEG rhythms at the following frequency bands: delta (about 2-4Hz), theta (about 4-6Hz), alpha1 (about 6-8Hz), alpha2 (about 8-10Hz), and alpha3 (about 10-12Hz). The effects on the patients were investigated comparing the inter-hemispheric EEG coherence in the epileptic patients with the control group of subjects evaluated in the previous reference studies. Compared with the control subjects, epileptic patients showed a statistically significant higher inter-hemispheric coherence of temporal and frontal alpha rhythms (about 8-12Hz) in the GSM than "Sham" condition. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of mobile phone may affect inter-hemispheric synchronization of the dominant (alpha) EEG rhythms in epileptic patients. If confirmed by future studies on a larger group of epilepsy patients, the modulation of the inter-hemispheric alpha coherence due to the GSM-EMFs could have clinical implications and be related to changes in cognitive-motor function.

19. PSarapultseva EI, Igolkina JV, (August 2011)
Experimental Study of Relationship between Biological Hazards of Low-Dose Radiofrequency Exposure and Energy Flow Density in Spirostomum Ambiguum Infusoria Exposed at a Mobile Connection Frequency (1 GHz),
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Aug;151(4):477-80 [View Author's abstract conclusions] [View on Pubmed]
Radiofrequency exposure at the mobile connection frequency (1 GHz) at different energy flow densities, 5 µW/cm(2)(2-fold below the maximum permissible level) and 50 µW/cm(2)(5-fold surpassing this level), caused a reduction of motor activity in unicellular hydrobionts Spirostomum ambiguum Ehrbg infusoria. In all cases, the effect was similar by the intensity and developed in a jump-wise manner after exposure of a certain duration, after which did not increase with prolongation of the exposure. The duration of radiofrequency exposure safe for the object varied significantly: 8-9 h and 10 min at 5 and 50 µW, respectively. These innovation data on harmful biological effects of very low radiofrequency exposure (5 µW/cm(2)), the threshold form of biological reaction, presence of "safe" periods of exposure, and the data demonstrating a clear-cut relationship between these periods and energy flow density are interesting from theoretical viewpoint and in connection with the problem of evaluating permissible levels of radiofrequency exposure of biological objects.

Friday, March 30, 2012

Voltage problem for dairy cows results in lawsuits, Senate bill

Voltage problem for dairy cows results in lawsuits, Senate bill

March 7, 2012

The Iowa Legislature is trying to tackle a shocking bovine problem.

Something known as stray electrical voltage is zapping thousands of the state's dairy cows, giving them jolts that can affect milk production and interfere with breeding schedules.
Farmers and others have known about the problem for decades, but the Legislature this year is taking note because of an onslaught of lawsuits against electric cooperatives.
Some lawmakers want to follow states like Wisconsin, Idaho and Michigan and set science-based standards for addressing the issue in a manner that benefits consumers and utilities alike.

But the plan is drawing criticism from groups who contend that the proposed definition of stray voltage in the bill would essentially eliminate any chance that a farmer could seek legal recourse.

That has created tension between powerful lobby groups like the Iowa Farm Bureau and the Iowa Association of Electric Cooperatives.

That conflict publicly festered this week after the Senate started but then abruptly halted debate on the bill, Senate File 2286, so lawmakers could regroup to find an amicable solution for all parties.

"You've got the dairy guys and the Farm Bureau and the trial lawyers against the electric cooperatives," said Sen. Matt McCoy, D-Des Moines, who is leading discussion on the bill.
McCoy continued: "I don't want to take away people's adjudication process, but at the same time I think the RECs (rural electric cooperatives) need an operational level of comfort that they have to work within to make sure they're meeting a set standard."
Grounding electrical systems results in some current being absorbed into the earth. When that current reaches levels at which it can affect animals, it's often termed "stray voltage." The problem can be heightened by old and corroded equipment, such as power lines from decades past.

Even low levels of stray voltage can cause dairy cows stress and discomfort. Effects include the loss of 20 percent or more of an animal's milk production and longer intervals between calving, said Sen. Joe Seng, D-Davenport, who is a veterinarian.

Setting specific standards is difficult because some animals are more susceptible to current than others, and conditions -- such as standing on metal vs. earth -- can intensify even the slightest jolt, Seng said.

At least five of Iowa's 36 electric cooperatives have faced lawsuits over the stray voltage issue. The proposed legislation would set guidelines for farmers and electricity providers that would help to more quickly resolve the disputes, said Amy Myers, a spokeswoman for the Iowa Association of Electric Cooperatives.

"The legislation we are pursuing doesn't remove a person's right to sue," Myers said. "What's important is it sets up a process so people can go through, get proper measurements, find the source and take care of it."

Iowans should not be precluded from suing if they have legitimate claims, said Bill Wimmer, a lobbyist for the Iowa Association for Justice.

"Our concern is when you make a definition that puts a standard in, if you don't meet that standard, then it's pretty hard to bring a lawsuit even though there may be damages," Wimmer said.

Cedar County farmer Steve Laezer spent about $30,000 to fix the problem on his dairy farm in 2008. He didn't file a lawsuit against his local electric cooperative because he didn't know who -- or what -- caused the problem.

But Laezer said limiting a farmer's ability to sue could make final resolution more challenging, further increasing production costs.

After the fixes, milk production at his roughly 60-cow operation increased, and calving intervals decreased, he noted.

"I just wanted to get it fixed," Laezer said of his investment in eliminating the stray voltage problem.

Don Petersen, government relations director for the Iowa Farm Bureau, said the group remains opposed to the bill as it is written but believes language can be found to satisfy all parties.

"All the efforts are good and well-intentioned and worth an effort," Petersen said about the bill.

Cell Towers and Cancer Study in Belo Horizonte Brazil.

Belo Horizonte is the third largest city in Brazil. The Municipal Health Department and several universities decided to perform a study to determine if the microwave radiation from city's cell phone towers caused cancer in their population. The 10 year study found that if you live within 500 meters of cell phone antennas your chances of getting tumours will be greater than if you live outside the 500 meter "white" safe zone. Just after this study was published in 2011, the city prosecutor sued several cell phone companies and asked for almost 700 antenna to be removed.

To view the abstract, charts and graphs of the publication, the link is provided below.

To view a video about this study and others regarding the health effects of cell towers visit -

Silicon Valley School Without Computers

Vermont towns reject smart meters

Vermont towns reject smart meters: Bennington, Dorset, Manchester, and Sandgate 
vote against rollout in landslide

Posted By Press Release On March 7, 2012 @ 9:15 pm In Press Releases | 9 Comments
For immediate release

Mar. 6, 2012

Jesse Mayhew, Campaign Manager

Phone: 802-779-0500 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 802-779-0500 end_of_the_skype_highlighting

During Town Meeting Day, March 6, 2012 four Vermont towns expressed their concerns about the pending rollout by voting against smart meter implementation in their respective communities. The towns of Bennington, Manchester, Dorset, and Sandgate all overwhelmingly chose to reject smart meter rollouts. Although the votes were nonbinding, their outcome is the latest sign Vermonters are becoming increasingly concerned about the impacts smart meters have on their health, privacy, and security.

“These results come from communities where the roll-out has already begun or is set to begin soon. We are not surprised by these results because it is clear that as Vermonters learn more about wireless smart meters, the less they want them in their community.” Said Wake Up Opt Out Campaign Manager Jesse Mayhew.
Manchester resident and Wake Up Opt Out campaign member Tina Victor said there were three main reasons why residents voted against the meters, “Vermonters are voting against smart meters because they are concerned about their privacy, worried about health implications, and think the whole process has been rushed without enough public input or awareness.”

Victor continued, “It is our hope that these votes and recent public opposition to smart meters is enough to get our elected officials and regulators to stop listening to the utilities and start listening to the people’s concerns.”

The Wake Up Opt Out Campaign said the votes were the latest evidence that this is a growing and important issue for Vermonters, “We’ve seen the traffic to our website grow everyday since its launch. We’ve seen the number of letters to the editor in local papers swell. And now we see four towns directly express their concern. It’s very clear this is becoming a much larger issue, and is likely just the beginning of Vermonters speaking out.”

Mayhew continued, “It is also worth pointing out that no towns that discussed smart meters voted in their favor.”

Summary of Results:
• Bennington – Voice Vote for “One year moratorium on installation of smart meters” – broad support with only a “few nays” reported.
• Dorset – Australian ballot to “oppose installation of wireless smart meters” – 292 in favor, 197 against.
• Manchester – Floor vote to “Oppose the installation of wireless smart meters” – 94 in favor, 48 against.
• Sandgate – Floor vote to have Select Board write letter of opposition – 54 in favor, 0 against (unanimous)
Mayhew encourages concerned Vermonters seeking further information on Smart Meters to visit the campaign’s website at

Article printed from VTDigger:

How Corporations Corrupt Science at the Public's Expense

How Corporations Corrupt Science at the Public's Expense

Report looks at methods of corporate abuse, suggests steps toward reform

Federal decision makers need access to the best available science in order to craft policies that protect our health, safety, and environment.

Unfortunately, censorship of scientists and the manipulation, distortion, and suppression of scientific information have threatened federal science in recent years.

This problem has sparked much debate, but few have identified the key driver of political interference in federal science: the inappropriate influence of companies with a financial stake in the outcome.

A new UCS report, Heads They Win, Tails We Lose, shows how corporations influence the use of science in federal decision making to serve their own interests.

Methods of Abuse

The report describes five basic methods that corporations use to influence the scientific and policy-making processes:

How Do They Game the System?
Let Us Recount the Ways

Heads They Win, Tails We Lose is full of real-world examples of the ways corporations interfere with science. Here are just a few of the highlights:

Suppressing Research:
Hog Farm Emissions

After pork producers contacted his supervisors, a USDA microbiologist was prevented from publishing research showing that emissions from industrial hog farms contained antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Corrupting Advisory Panels:
Childhood Lead Poisoning

A few weeks before a CDC advisory panel met to discuss revising federal lead standards, two scientists with ties to the lead industry were added to the panel. The committee voted against tightening the standards.

Ghostwriting Articles:
The Pharmaceutical Industry

A 2011 analysis found evidence of corporate authorship in research articles on a variety of drugs, including Avandia, Paxil, Tylenol, and Vioxx.

For more examples, visit our A-to-Z Guide to Political Interference in Science.
Corrupting the Science. Corporations suppress research, intimidate scientists, manipulate study designs, ghostwrite scientific articles, and selectively publish results that suit their interests.

Shaping Public Perception. Private interests downplay evidence, exaggerate uncertainty, vilify scientists, hide behind front groups, and feed the media slanted news stories.

Restricting Agency Effectiveness. Companies attack the science behind agency policy, hinder the regulatory process, corrupt advisory panels, exploit the "revolving door" between corporate and government employment, censor scientists, and withhold information from the public.

Influencing Congress. By spending billions of dollars on lobbying and campaign contributions, corporate interests gain undue access to members of Congress, encouraging them to challenge scientific consensus, delay action on critical problems, and shape the use of science in policy making.

Exploiting Judicial Pathways. Corporate interests have expanded their influence on the judicial system, used the courts to undermine science, and exploited judicial processes to bully and silence scientists.

Progress Made (and Still To Be Made)
In his 2009 inaugural address, President Obama promised to "restore science to its rightful place." His administration has made progress toward that goal on several important fronts—elevating the role of science in government, ordering agencies to develop scientific integrity policies, improving transparency, and strengthening conflict-of-interest policies.

Despite these positive steps, much remains to be done. The report identifies five key areas where further federal commitments to protect science from undue corporate influence are needed: protecting government scientists from retaliation and intimidation; making government more transparent and accountable; reforming the regulatory process; strengthening scientific advice to government; and strengthening monitoring and enforcement.

Beyond Government

Corporations, nonprofits, academic institutions, scientific societies, and the media also have critical roles to play in reducing abuses of science in federal decision making. These institutions should:
  • promote honest scientific investigation and open discussion of research results;
  • refrain from actual or perceived acts of scientific misconduct;
  • embrace transparency and avoid conflicts of interest.
Inappropriate corporate interference in science extends its tentacles into every aspect of federal science-based policy-making. Addressing this interference will require overcoming high hurdles, but they are not insurmountable. With strong leadership and a sustained commitment, both the federal government and the private sector can rise to the challenge.